Microfluidic lab-on-chips offer promising technology for the automation of various biochemical laboratory protocols on a minuscule chip. Sample preparation (SP) is an essential part of any biochemical experiments, which aims to produce dilution of a sample or a mixture of multiple reagents in a certain ratio. One major objective in this area is to prepare dilutions of a given fluid with different concentration factors, each with certain volume, which is referred to as the demand-driven multiple-target (DDMT) generation problem. SP with microfluidic biochips requires proper sequencing of mix-split steps on fluid volumes and needs storage units to save intermediate fluids while producing the desired target ratio. The performance of SP depends on the underlying mixing algorithm and the availability of on-chip storage, and the latter is often limited by the constraints imposed during physical design. Since DDMT involves several target ratios, solving it under storage constraints becomes even harder. Furthermore, reduction of mix-split steps is desirable from the viewpoint of accuracy of SP, as every such step is a potential source of volumetric split error. In this article, we propose a storage-aware DDMT algorithm that reduces the number of mix-split operations on a digital microfluidic lab-on-chip. We also present the layout of the biochip with
-storage cells and their allocation technique for
. Simulation results reveal the superiority of the proposed method compared to the state-of-the-art multi-target SP algorithms.
The study was an “ex post-facto” research carried out in Vijayapura district of KarnatakaState during the year 2020-21. Two taluks were purposively selected based on the highestproduction of dry grapes to make a sample size of 200. The collected problems wereanalyzed using Garret’s ranking methodology to develop a quantitative position of eachproblem. The findings showed that dry grape producers faced production and marketingproblems more severely. Among the production problems, heavy investment on inputs,no standard package of practices available from agriculture or horticulture universities andhigh rate of interest were prominent. Similarly, in the case of marketing problems, no localmarket and lack of processing and storage units were ranked at top. There is an immediateneed to improve various marketing practices by developing a strategy in order to overcomethese impediments which will enhance the entrepreneurial access of the dry grape producers.
In this paper, a bidirectional zero voltage switching (ZVS) resonant converter with narrow control frequency deviation is proposed. Wide input–output voltage range applications, such as flywheel or supercapacitors storage units are targeted. Due to symmetrical topology of resonant circuit interfaces, the proposed converter has similar behavior in bidirectional operating mode. We call it Dual Active Bridge Converter (DABC). The proposal topology of the converter is subjected to multi resonant circuits which make it necessary to study with multiscale approaches. Thus, first harmonic approximation and use of selective per unit parameters are established in (2) Methods. Then, the forward direction and backward direction of power flux exchange are detailed according to switching sequences. Switching frequency control must be completed within a narrow range. So, the frequency range deterministic parameters are emphasized in the design procedure in (3) Methods. A narrow range of switching frequency and a wide range voltage control must be ensured to suit for energy storage units, power electronic devices capabilities and electromagnetic compatibility. A 3 kW test bench is used to validate operation principles and to proof success of the developed design procedure. The interest of proposed converter is compared to other solutions from the literature in (4) Results.
Utilizing preheating units is one of the most critical ways to improve the performance of thermal power plants. Increasing the overall efficiency of Brayton or Rankine cycles by preheating the air or stream may result in considerable increases in output power and efficiency. When it comes to renewable energy, solar energy is an appealing alternative for use as a source of preheating since it is readily accessible. The current article discusses the use of solar energy for preheating air and steam in thermal power plants, as well as other uses. The performance of the systems is being improved, according to evaluations, as a result of a variety of elements, including the configuration of the reference system, the operating environment, the applied technology, and so on. Aside from improving the overall efficiency of the power plant, the incorporation of a solar preheating system may significantly decrease fuel usage and, as a result, carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, owing to the unavailability of solar energy during the night and overcast hours, thermal storage units may improve the system's dependability while also increasing the contribution of solar energy to the system's output.
The paper considers the electrochemical properties of potassium polytitanate synthesized at the values of pH varying from 3 to 8 in a wide temperature range from −26 to +80°C. The conductivity values and the activation energy were determined with the help of the method of impedance spectroscopy. The application of the obtained material used as a ceramic solid electrolyte in the energy storage units operating at low temperatures in the Far North is considered in the article.
With the construction and development of ultra-high voltage (UHV) power grids, large-scale, long-distance power transmission has become common. A failure of the connecting line between the sending-end power grid and the receiving-end power grid will cause a large-scale power shortage and a frequency drop in the receiving-end power grid, which can result in the frequency collapse. Presently, under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) is adopted for solving the frequency control problem in emergency under-frequency conditions, which can easily cause large load losses. In this context, a frequency coordination optimal control strategy is proposed, which combines the mode transition of pumped storage units with UFLS to deal with emergency under-frequency problems. First, a mathematical model of the frequency dynamic response is established, which combines the mode transition of pumped storage units with UFLS based on a single-machine equivalent model. Then, an optimal model of the minimal area of the power system’s operation frequency trajectory is introduced, yielding the optimal frequency trajectory, and is used for obtaining the action frequency of the joint control strategy. A simulated annealing algorithm based on the perturbation analysis is proposed for solving the optimal model, and the optimal action frequency is obtained that satisfies the transient frequency offset safety constraint of the power system. Thus, the joint optimal control of the mode transition of the pumped storage units and UFLS is realized. Finally, the EPRI-36 bus system and China’s actual power grid are considered, for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed strategy.
In the power and heat sectors, the uncertainty of energy and carbon prices plays a decisive role in the rationale for decommissioning/repurposing coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) systems and on investment decisions of energy storage units. Therefore, there is a growing need for advanced methods that incorporate the stochastic disturbances of energy and carbon emission prices into the optimization process of an energy system. In this context, this paper proposes an integrated method for investigating the effects of uncertain energy and carbon prices on the operational patterns and financial results of CHP systems with thermal energy storage units. The approach combines mathematical programming and Monte Carlo simulation. The computational process generates feasible solutions for profit maximization considering the technical constraints of the CHP system and the variation of energy and carbon emission prices. Four scenarios are established to compare the operational patterns and economic performance of a CHP system in 2020 and 2030. Results show that in 2020, there is an 80% probability that the system’s annual profit will be less than or equal to €30.98 M. However, at the same probability level, the annual profit in 2030 could fall below €11.88 M. Furthermore, the scenarios indicate that the incorporation of a thermal energy storage unit leads to higher expected profits (€0.74 M in 2020 and €0.71 M in 2030). This research shows that coal-fired CHP plant operators will face costly risks and potentially greater challenges in the upcoming years with the increasing regulatory and financial pressure on CO2 emissions and the EU’s plan of phasing out fossil fuels from electricity and heat generation.