thermal coupling
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 640
Yi Lu ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Jianxing Li ◽  
Wenjing Xu

In high-power microwave applications, the electromagnetic-thermal effect of frequency selective surface (FSS) cannot be ignored. In this paper, the electromagnetic-thermal coupling effects of cross-slot FSS were studied. We used an equivalent circuit method and CST software to analyze the electromagnetic characteristics of cross-slot FSS. Then, we used multi-field simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics to study the thermal effect of the FSSs. To verify the simulation results, we used a horn antenna with a power of 20 W to radiate the FSSs and obtain the stable temperature distribution of the FSSs. By using simulations and experiments, it is found that the maximum temperature of the cross-slot FSS appears in the middle of the cross slot. It is also found that the FSS with a narrow slot has severer thermal effect than that with a wide slot. In addition, the effects of different incident angles on the temperature variation of FSS under TE and TM polarization were also studied. It is found that in TE polarization, with the increase in incident angle, the maximum stable temperature of FSS increases gradually. In TM polarization, with the increase in incident angle, the maximum stable temperature of FSS decreases gradually.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 525
Yuting Zhang ◽  
Fuhao Yu ◽  
Zhe Ma ◽  
Jian Li ◽  
Jiang Qian ◽  

As a key state parameter of high-voltage cables, conductor temperature is an essential determinant of the current carrying capacity of cables, but in practice, this is difficult to measure directly during the operation of high-voltage cables. In this paper, the electromagnetic-thermal coupling analysis model of a 110 kV high-voltage cable is established using the finite element analysis software COMSOL. By analyzing the temperature distribution law of high-voltage cables under different load currents and ambient temperatures, the relationship between the change in the high-voltage cable surface temperature and the conductor temperature is deduced, which allows the monitoring of the high-voltage cable conductor temperature. Taking the 110 kV cable of the Yanzhong line in Shanxi Province as an example and using the electromagnetic-thermal coupling temperature field analysis method, the conductor temperature of the high-voltage cable can be measured using the data obtained from the cable surface temperature, which is measured by the self-developed Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) system with a maximum measurement error of about 2 °C. The method is easy to use and can achieve the accurate measurement of the conductor temperature without damaging the cable body.

2022 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 04004
Matteo Cavo ◽  
Eleonora Gadducci ◽  
Massimo Rivarolo ◽  
Loredana Magistri ◽  
Andrea Dellacasa ◽  

The ZEUS (Zero Emission Ultimate Ship), developed in the framework of the national research project TecBia conducted by Fincantieri and co-founded by Italian Ministry of Economic Development, is a 25m length vessel characterized by a zero-emissions propulsion system. The on-board power generation is provided by 4 PEM Fuel Cell modules (140 kW power installation) fed by hydrogen stored into 48 Metal Hydride tanks (MH). PEMFC and MH thermal systems are coupled to recover the heat produced by PEMFC and to feed the endothermic dissociation reactions of hydrogen from MHs. This paper provides a Matlab-Simulink model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the PEMFC power generation system and the thermal coupling with MH racks installed onboard. Three typical operative profiles are simulated to verify the thermal management control system and the impact of transient conditions on the propulsion plant. Furthermore, the effects of the major exogenous parameters are investigated. Results verify that thermal coupling between the two systems is guaranteed; however, an excessive load increase can lead the stacks to operate under non-optimal conditions for significant periods of time. The effect of exogenous parameters has been verified to be negligible and does not significantly affect the control system.

Nano Letters ◽  
2021 ◽  
Zhichao Ma ◽  
Junming Xiong ◽  
Jiakai Li ◽  
Hongwei Zhao ◽  
Luquan Ren

Buildings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Pei Zhou ◽  
Songjie Wang ◽  
Zhao Jin ◽  
Gongsheng Huang ◽  
Jian Zhu ◽  

An indoor high and open space is characterized by high mobility of people and uneven temperature distribution, so the conventional design and operation of air conditioning systems makes it difficult to regulate the air conditioning system precisely and efficiently. Thus, a Wireless Sensor Network was constructed in an indoor space located in Hong Kong to monitor the indoor environmental parameters of the space and improve the temperature control effectively. To ensure the continuity of the measurement data, three algorithms for reconstructing temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide data were implemented and compared. The results demonstrate the accuracy of support vector regression model and multiple linear regression model is higher than Back Propagation neural network model for reconstructing temperature data. Multiple linear regression is the most convenient from the perspective of program complexity, computing speed and difficulty in obtaining input conditions. Based on the data we collected, the traditional single-input-single-output control, zonal temperature control and the proposed zonal demand control methods were modeled on a Transient System Simulation Program (TRNSYS) control platform, the thermal coupling between the subzones without physical partition was taken into account, and the mass transfer between the virtual boundaries was calculated by an external CONTAM program. The simulation results showed the proposed zonal demand control can alleviate the over-cooling or over-heating phenomenon in conventional temperature control, thermal comfort and energy reduction is enhanced as well.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jing Ye ◽  
Danyang Zhao ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  
Zhenghua Li ◽  
Tao Zhang

Heating network constraint is one of the important factors that affect the scale of electro-thermal coupling scheduling. This paper first establishes an electrothermal coupling scheduling model considering the multi-source ring heating network pipe structure and then proposes a method of simplifying a multi-source cyclic heating network topology approximation. Second, the electrothermal coupling scheduling system is coordinated and solved. Finally, Through the simulation example results, the annular heating network topological approximate equivalent can simplify the model complexity of the original heating network while also retaining the thermal dynamic characteristics of the initial multi-source ring heating network. This study will greatly improve the efficiency of solving the electrothermal coupling system.

Yadi Xu ◽  
Lin Li ◽  
Xuan Yuan

As a core component of the power electronic transformer (PET) in DC network, the multi-level high-frequency power transformer has received great attention due to the insulation material fatigue problems resulting from the hot-spot temperature rises. To solve this problem, a three-winding high-frequency transformer for 10 kVA PET application is designed and made in the laboratory, and the loss and temperature rise distribution is calculated by means of the finite element (FE) electromagnetic-thermal coupling simulation. The influence of temperature on the hysteresis and loss properties of core material has been carefully considered and measured. The influence of skin effect and end effect on the winding loss is taken into account through the establishing three-dimensional FE model. Besides, the convective heat transfer coefficient is solved based on the principle of heat transfer instead of the empirical coefficient method. By compared with the experimental results, the calculated results are validated to be effective in predicting the loss and hot-spot temperature rises of the transformer.

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