wide area network
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Junyang Shi ◽  
Di Mu ◽  
Mo Sha

Low-power wireless mesh networks (LPWMNs) have been widely used in wireless monitoring and control applications. Although LPWMNs work satisfactorily most of the time thanks to decades of research, they are often complex, inelastic to change, and difficult to manage once the networks are deployed. Moreover, the deliveries of control commands, especially those carrying urgent information such as emergency alarms, suffer long delay, since the messages must go through the hop-by-hop transport. Recent studies show that adding low-power wide-area network radios such as LoRa onto the LPWMN devices (e.g., ZigBee) effectively overcomes the limitation. However, users have shown a marked reluctance to embrace the new heterogeneous communication approach because of the cost of hardware modification. In this article, we introduce LoRaBee, a novel LoRa to ZigBee cross-technology communication (CTC) approach, which leverages the energy emission in the Sub-1 GHz bands as the carrier to deliver information. Although LoRa and ZigBee adopt distinct modulation techniques, LoRaBee sends information from LoRa to ZigBee by putting specific bytes in the payload of legitimate LoRa packets. The bytes are selected such that the corresponding LoRa chirps can be recognized by the ZigBee devices through sampling the received signal strength. Experimental results show that our LoRaBee provides reliable CTC communication from LoRa to ZigBee with the throughput of up to 281.61 bps in the Sub-1 GHz bands.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Chaojie Gu ◽  
Linshan Jiang ◽  
Rui Tan ◽  
Mo Li ◽  
Jun Huang

Low-power wide-area network technologies such as long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN) are promising for collecting low-rate monitoring data from geographically distributed sensors, in which timestamping the sensor data is a critical system function. This article considers a synchronization-free approach to timestamping LoRaWAN uplink data based on signal arrival time at the gateway, which well matches LoRaWAN’s one-hop star topology and releases bandwidth from transmitting timestamps and synchronizing end devices’ clocks at all times. However, we show that this approach is susceptible to a frame delay attack consisting of malicious frame collision and delayed replay. Real experiments show that the attack can affect the end devices in large areas up to about 50,000, m 2 . In a broader sense, the attack threatens any system functions requiring timely deliveries of LoRaWAN frames. To address this threat, we propose a LoRaTS gateway design that integrates a commodity LoRaWAN gateway and a low-power software-defined radio receiver to track the inherent frequency biases of the end devices. Based on an analytic model of LoRa’s chirp spread spectrum modulation, we develop signal processing algorithms to estimate the frequency biases with high accuracy beyond that achieved by LoRa’s default demodulation. The accurate frequency bias tracking capability enables the detection of the attack that introduces additional frequency biases. We also investigate and implement a more crafty attack that uses advanced radio apparatuses to eliminate the frequency biases. To address this crafty attack, we propose a pseudorandom interval hopping scheme to enhance our frequency bias tracking approach. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of our approach in deployments with real affecting factors such as temperature variations.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 664
Samira Afzal ◽  
Laisa C. C. De Biase ◽  
Geovane Fedrecheski ◽  
William T. Pereira ◽  
Marcelo K. Zuffo

The Internet of Things (IoT) leverages added valued services by the wide spread of connected smart devices. The Swarm Computing paradigm considers a single abstraction layer that connects all kinds of devices globally, from sensors to super computers. In this context, the Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) emerges, spreading out connection to the IoT end devices. With the upsides of long-range, low power and low cost, LPWAN presents major limitations regarding data transmission capacity, throughput, supported packet length and quantity per day limitation. This situation makes LPWAN systems with limited interoperability integrate with systems based on REpresentational State Transfer (REST). This work investigates how to connect web-based IoT applications with LPWANs. The analysis was carried out studying the number of packets generated for a use case of REST-based IoT over LPWAN, specifically the Swarm OS over LoRaWAN. The work also presents an analysis of the impact of using promising schemes for lower communication load. We evaluated Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) and Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) to make transmission over the restricted links of LPWANs possible. The attained results show the reduction of 98.18% packet sizes while using SCHC and CBOR compared to HTTP and JSON by sending fewer packets with smaller sizes.

Network ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 36-52
Miguel Rosendo ◽  
Jorge Granjal

The constant evolution in communication infrastructures will enable new Internet of Things (IoT) applications, particularly in areas that, up to today, have been mostly enabled by closed or proprietary technologies. Such applications will be enabled by a myriad of wireless communication technologies designed for all types of IoT devices, among which are the Long-Range Wide-Area Network (LoRaWAN) or other Low-power and Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN) communication technologies. This applies to many critical environments, such as industrial control and healthcare, where wireless communications are yet to be broadly adopted. Two fundamental requirements to effectively support upcoming critical IoT applications are those of energy management and security. We may note that those are, in fact, contradictory goals. On the one hand, many IoT devices depend on the usage of batteries while, on the other hand, adequate security mechanisms need to be in place to protect devices and communications from threats against their stability and security. With thismotivation in mind, we propose a solution to address the management, in tandem, of security and energy in LoRaWAN IoT communication environments. We propose and evaluate an architecture in the context of which adaptation logic is used to manage security and energy dynamically, with the goal of guaranteeing appropriate security, while promoting the lifetime of constrained sensing devices. The proposed solution was implemented and experimentally evaluated and was observed to successfully manage security and energy. Security and energy are managed in line with the requirements of the application at hand, the characteristics of the constrained sensing devices employed and the detection, as well as the threat, of particular types of attacks.

Computers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Imran Zualkernan ◽  
Salam Dhou ◽  
Jacky Judas ◽  
Ali Reza Sajun ◽  
Brylle Ryan Gomez ◽  

Camera traps deployed in remote locations provide an effective method for ecologists to monitor and study wildlife in a non-invasive way. However, current camera traps suffer from two problems. First, the images are manually classified and counted, which is expensive. Second, due to manual coding, the results are often stale by the time they get to the ecologists. Using the Internet of Things (IoT) combined with deep learning represents a good solution for both these problems, as the images can be classified automatically, and the results immediately made available to ecologists. This paper proposes an IoT architecture that uses deep learning on edge devices to convey animal classification results to a mobile app using the LoRaWAN low-power, wide-area network. The primary goal of the proposed approach is to reduce the cost of the wildlife monitoring process for ecologists, and to provide real-time animal sightings data from the camera traps in the field. Camera trap image data consisting of 66,400 images were used to train the InceptionV3, MobileNetV2, ResNet18, EfficientNetB1, DenseNet121, and Xception neural network models. While performance of the trained models was statistically different (Kruskal–Wallis: Accuracy H(5) = 22.34, p < 0.05; F1-score H(5) = 13.82, p = 0.0168), there was only a 3% difference in the F1-score between the worst (MobileNet V2) and the best model (Xception). Moreover, the models made similar errors (Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) > 0.88 and Adjusted Mutual Information (AMU) > 0.82). Subsequently, the best model, Xception (Accuracy = 96.1%; F1-score = 0.87; F1-Score = 0.97 with oversampling), was optimized and deployed on the Raspberry Pi, Google Coral, and Nvidia Jetson edge devices using both TenorFlow Lite and TensorRT frameworks. Optimizing the models to run on edge devices reduced the average macro F1-Score to 0.7, and adversely affected the minority classes, reducing their F1-score to as low as 0.18. Upon stress testing, by processing 1000 images consecutively, Jetson Nano, running a TensorRT model, outperformed others with a latency of 0.276 s/image (s.d. = 0.002) while consuming an average current of 1665.21 mA. Raspberry Pi consumed the least average current (838.99 mA) with a ten times worse latency of 2.83 s/image (s.d. = 0.036). Nano was the only reasonable option as an edge device because it could capture most animals whose maximum speeds were below 80 km/h, including goats, lions, ostriches, etc. While the proposed architecture is viable, unbalanced data remain a challenge and the results can potentially be improved by using object detection to reduce imbalances and by exploring semi-supervised learning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Njabulo Sakhile Mtetwa ◽  
Paul Tarwireyi ◽  
Cecilia Nombuso Sibeko ◽  
Adnan Abu-Mahfouz ◽  
Matthew Adigun

The Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way consumers, businesses, and governments interact with the physical and cyber worlds. More often than not, IoT devices are designed for specific functional requirements or use cases without paying too much attention to security. Consequently, attackers usually compromise IoT devices with lax security to retrieve sensitive information such as encryption keys, user passwords, and sensitive URLs. Moreover, expanding IoT use cases and the exponential growth in connected smart devices significantly widen the attack surface. Despite efforts to deal with security problems, the security of IoT devices and the privacy of the data they collect and process are still areas of concern in research. Whenever vulnerabilities are discovered, device manufacturers are expected to release patches or new firmware to fix the vulnerabilities. There is a need to prioritize firmware attacks, because they enable the most high-impact threats that go beyond what is possible with traditional attacks. In IoT, delivering and deploying new firmware securely to affected devices remains a challenge. This study aims to develop a security model that employs Blockchain and the InterPlanentary File System (IPFS) to secure firmware transmission over a low data rate, constrained Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN). The proposed security model ensures integrity, confidentiality, availability, and authentication and focuses on resource-constrained low-powered devices. To demonstrate the utility and applicability of the proposed model, a proof of concept was implemented and evaluated using low-powered devices. The experimental results show that the proposed model is feasible for constrained and low-powered LoRaWAN devices.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 164
Mukarram A. M. Almuhaya ◽  
Waheb A. Jabbar ◽  
Noorazliza Sulaiman ◽  
Suliman Abdulmalek

Low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies play a pivotal role in IoT applications, owing to their capability to meet the key IoT requirements (e.g., long range, low cost, small data volumes, massive device number, and low energy consumption). Between all obtainable LPWAN technologies, long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN) technology has attracted much interest from both industry and academia due to networking autonomous architecture and an open standard specification. This paper presents a comparative review of five selected driving LPWAN technologies, including NB-IoT, SigFox, Telensa, Ingenu (RPMA), and LoRa/LoRaWAN. The comparison shows that LoRa/LoRaWAN and SigFox surpass other technologies in terms of device lifetime, network capacity, adaptive data rate, and cost. In contrast, NB-IoT technology excels in latency and quality of service. Furthermore, we present a technical overview of LoRa/LoRaWAN technology by considering its main features, opportunities, and open issues. We also compare the most important simulation tools for investigating and analyzing LoRa/LoRaWAN network performance that has been developed recently. Then, we introduce a comparative evaluation of LoRa simulators to highlight their features. Furthermore, we classify the recent efforts to improve LoRa/LoRaWAN performance in terms of energy consumption, pure data extraction rate, network scalability, network coverage, quality of service, and security. Finally, although we focus more on LoRa/LoRaWAN issues and solutions, we introduce guidance and directions for future research on LPWAN technologies.

Muhammad Imam Nashiruddin ◽  
Maruli Tua Baja Sihotang ◽  
Muhammad Ary Murti

Smart city implementation, such as smart energy and utilities, smart mobility &amp; transportation, smart environment, and smart living in urban areas is expanding rapidly worldwide. However, one of the biggest challenges that need to be solved is the selection of the appropriate internet of things (IoT) connectivity technologies. This research will seek for the best candidate low power wide area network (LPWAN) technologies such as long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN), narrow-band internet of things (NB-IoT), and random phase multiple access (RPMA) for IoT smart city deployment in Bandung city is based on IoT network connectivity between with six technical evaluation criteria: gateway requirements, traffic/data projection, the best signal level area distribution, and overlapping zones. Bass model is carried out to determine the capacity forecast. While in coverage prediction, LoRaWAN and NB-IoT use the Okumura-Hata propagation, and Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) model is used for RPMA. Based on the simulation and performance evaluation results, RPMA outperforms LoRaWAN and NB-IoT. It required the least gateway number to cover Bandung city with the best signal levels and overlapping zones.

Mimoh Ojha

Abstract: This paper gives an insight of how information and communications technology (ICT) in combination with big data analytics can help to improve healthcare services in Madhya Pradesh, which is a state in India having approximately 75 million populations. With ongoing projects like ‘Digital India’ which will allow computerization of hospitals and digitization of healthcare data. Digital India coupled with ICT, can play an indispensable role in providing effective healthcare services through e-health application like electronic health record, e-prescription, computerized physician order entry, telemedicine, mhealth along with the network like State wide area network (SWAN) and National health information network which will allow sharing of healthcare records across the network. Data stored through e-health application is of huge size having different formats which makes it difficult to perform analytics on it. But with big data analytics we can perform analytics on large voluminous healthcare data and useful result obtained from data analytics, patients can be given better and specific treatments. It will also help doctors to exchange their knowledge and treatment practices. This paper also illustrates a case study on M.Y. hospital located in Indore, Madhya Pradesh. Keywords: ICT, E-health, Digital India, SWAN, CUG, Big Data Analytics.

Bhakti J. Soochik

Abstract: This paper simulate IoT based smart companies and make our networking infrastructure effective, efficient and most importantly accurate with security. The simulator used is Cisco Packet Tracer, this tool has been used form many years in networking. Main strength of the tool is the offering of a variety of network components that simulate a real network, devices would then need to be interconnected and configured in order to create a network. Technology plays a critical role in all daily activities of the present day. One of these needs is to create a smart office that controls operation and turns off electronic devices via a smartphone. This implementation can be implemented effectively using package tracking software that includes IoT functions to control and simulate a smart office. The latest version of the tool Cisco introduced IoT functionalities, and now it is possible to add to the network smart devices, components, sensors, actuators and also devices that simulate microcontrollers such as Arudino or Raspberry Pi. All the IoT devices can be run on standard programs or can be customized by programming them with Java, Phyton or Blockly. This makes Cisco Packet Tracer an ideal tool for building IoT practical simulations. Smart-Industrial smart-company office offer simulation of a power plant that produces and stores electricity via solar panels and wind turbines. All the electricity is produced by smart devices, then stored and utilized to power a production chain filled with smart sensor and actuators. IoT security features are also introduced in the simulations. Keywords: Internet of things (IOT), Campus Network (CN), networking, wide area network (WAN).

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