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Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 2172
Antonis P. Politis ◽  
Natalia G.C. Vasileiou ◽  
Peter J. Cripps ◽  
Dimitra V. Liagka ◽  
Petros T. Boufis ◽  

Objectives of the study were (a) to investigate the incidence risk of peri-parturient mortality in dairy flocks in Greece, (b) to study when such mortality occurs in relation to lambing, (c) to identify clinical problems associated with the deaths, and (d) to evaluate potentially associated factors. The deaths of ewes during the peri-parturient period (10 days before to 7 days after lambing) were monitored in 60 flocks over two years. In the ewes that died, detailed post-mortems were performed. The incidence risk of peri-parturient deaths was 0.7%. The daily incidence rate of deaths before, at, and after lambing was 0.05, 0.04, and 0.03%, respectively. Clinical problems most frequently associated with peri-parturient deaths were pregnancy toxaemia, ruminal acidosis and post-partum genital problems. For the occurrence of peri-parturient deaths in flocks, the average lambing rate in the flocks was the only significant factor. Regarding deaths before or after lambing, the season during which lambing took place and the number of animals in the flock, respectively, were found to be significant. Most ewes (54.5%) that died at lambing (dystocia) were primigravidae.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 1240
Thomas El Jammal ◽  
Yvan Jamilloux ◽  
Mathieu Gerfaud-Valentin ◽  
Gaëlle Richard-Colmant ◽  
Emmanuelle Weber ◽  

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause characterized by a wide variety of presentations. Its diagnosis is based on three major criteria: a clinical presentation compatible with sarcoidosis, the presence of non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in one or more tissue samples, and the exclusion of alternative causes of granulomatous disease. Many conditions may mimic a sarcoid-like granulomatous reaction. These conditions include infections, neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, and drug-induced diseases. Moreover, patients with sarcoidosis are at risk of developing opportunistic infections or lymphoma. Reliably confirming the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and better identifying new events are major clinical problems in daily practice. To address such issues, we present seven emblematic cases, seen in our department, over a ten-year period along with a literature review about case reports of conditions misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis.

Ujjwal Joshi ◽  
Megha Pradhan ◽  
Aastha Neupane ◽  
Nita Lawaju ◽  
Nirma Khadka ◽  

Introduction: Frenum attachments are fold of mucous membrane attaching the lips to alveolar mucosa and underlying periosteum. Aberrant location of attachment of maxillary labial frenum poses many clinical problems such as mucogingival problems and midline diastema. Objective: The study was performed to assess the variations in morphology of maxillary labial frenum in a sample of Newari children of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed enrolling 340 Newari children residing in Bhaktapur from August 14, 2020 to March 30, 2021. The study comprised both genders within age group of 6 to 16 years. The frenal attachment was recorded according to Mirko and Sewerin classification. The data was analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 using descriptive statistics. Results: In total, 340 Newari children participated in this study. The mucosal type was observed in 204 (60%) of the participants followed by gingival type 101 (29.7%). More than 80% of the participants had simple frenum (283, 83.2%). The frenum with nodule was present in 25 (7.4%) and frenum with appendix in 22 (6.5%) of study participants. Frenum with appendix was mostly present in males 18 (10.1%) than females 4 (2.5%). Conclusion: Within the Newari children, the mucosal type of maxillary labial frenum was more prevalent followed by gingival type. The simple frenum was the most common type on basis of morphology.  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1098612X2110262
Kaitlin N Bahlmann ◽  
Steven J Bailey ◽  
Toni S Brooks

Case series summary Gastric diverticulum (GD) is a rare condition that is described adequately in humans but has not been reported in cats. This case series describes six cats with GD, including three that were published in a previous abstract. All cats presented for a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, including chronic vomiting, weight loss and anorexia, and underwent negative contrast radiography to diagnose GD. All but one cat underwent surgical resection of the GD via partial gastrectomy, while the remaining cat was euthanized. Resection of the GD was associated with reduction of reported clinical signs. Relevance and novel information Gastric diverticula have never been reported in the cat. Negative contrast radiography appears to be a superior imaging technique in the diagnosis of feline GD. In cats with a vague chronic history, including vomiting, anorexia and weight loss, GD should be considered among the differential diagnoses. Further study and more cases need to be identified to better assess clinical problems referable to GD in the absence of other comorbidities. Maine Coon cats with GD appear to be over-represented.

2021 ◽  
Jean-Michel Hatt ◽  
Daryl Codron ◽  
Henning Richter ◽  
Patrick R. Kircher ◽  
Jürgen Hummel ◽  

AbstractDust and grit are ingested by herbivores in their natural habitats along with the plants that represent their selected diet. Among the functions of the rumen, a washing of ingesta from adhering dust and grit has recently been demonstrated. The putative consequence is a less strenuous wear on ruminant teeth by external abrasives during rumination. The same function should theoretically apply to camelids, but has not been investigated so far. We fed six llamas (Lama glama) a diet of grass hay and a lucerne-based pelleted food in which fine sand had been included at about 8% of ingredients, for ad libitum consumption for 6 weeks. Subsequently, animals were slaughtered and content of the different sections of the gastrointestinal tract was sampled for the analysis of dry matter (DM), total ash, and acid detergent insoluble ash (ADIA, a measure for silica). Additionally, two of the animals were subjected to whole-body computer tomography (CT) after death in the natural sternal resting position. No clinical problems or macroscopic changes in the faeces were observed during the experimental period. The results indicate an accumulation of ADIA in the C3 compartment of the stomach complex, in particular in the posterior portion that is the equivalent of the abomasum in ruminants. By contrast, contents of the C1, from which material is recruited for regurgitation and rumination, were depleted of ADIA, indicating that the contents had largely been washed free of sand. The washing effect is an unavoidable side effect of the flotation- and sedimentation-based sorting mechanisms in the ruminant and the camelid forestomachs. In theory, this should allow ruminants and camelids to live in similar habitats as nonruminant herbivores at lower degrees of hypsodonty.

Buthaina Buzakuk ◽  
Judith van der Voort

This case presentation takes you on a journey of diagnostic hurdles, covering a common neonatal presentation: abdominal distention with failure to pass meconium, followed by a presentation in infancy with metabolic, renal and electrolyte abnormalities. The article provides a systematic approach to the different clinical problems, allowing interpretation of results, making differential diagnoses and deciding on investigations and management.

Ameera Ibrahim Amer ◽  
Rana Ali Alsaadi ◽  
Malak Abdullah Almajed ◽  
Rana Ahmad Alzhrani ◽  
Sara Abdullah Asiri ◽  

Dental hypomineralization represents a major problem in childhood health that can cause serious problems and may even affect the permanent dentition. In previous literature review, the term molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) has been frequently reported among different studies. However, the clinical problems and complications of the condition are not commonly described among studies in the literature, which adds a value to this current study. The present study was a literature review that aimed to discuss the problems of hypomineralization in baby teeth and the reported common problems according to recent studies in the literature. Tooth loss, anesthetic problems within the anterior teeth, hypersensitivity and the presence of underlying inflammation are potential complications that might affect these patients. Moreover, it was also previously reported that the subsurfaces of the affected enamels are usually porous and soft. On other hand, the surfaces of the intact enamels are usually hypermineralized, hard and smooth, owing to the subsequent post-eruptive maturation. Identification of the underlying etiology and risk factors is important for the proper management of these cases. A systemic origin of the disorder was strongly suggested while other environmental and genetic factors had been suggested. Moreover, establishing a proper diagnosis can be hard due to the presence of some similar disorders. Therefore, a differential diagnosis should be established as it is discussed in this literature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Lourdes Lemus-Varela ◽  

Apnea of prematurity is one of the most common and recurrent clinical problems observed in the neonatal intensive care unit; with a higher incidence at a lower gestational age.


It is well argued that stability-initiated failure dominates, especially in older bone, because of the instability of single trabeculae which is prone to inelastic buckling at stresses far less than expected for strength-based failure. It is also well known that when several horizontal struts have disappeared, trabecula fails due to compression-buckling load. In this contribution, our main goal is to improve, from theoretical point of view, the mechanistic understanding of bone buckling failure which is known to be at the core of important clinical problems. For that and with respect to previous works, an attempt is made in order to establish a simplified adaptive-beam buckling model, formulated within the context of the nonlocal adaptive continuum mechanics, from which numerical computations were performed in order to get a better knowledge about bone-column buckling mechanism affected by both bone density and bone density gradient distributions restricted to Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. An attempt is made to compare the experimental data with the response of our simplified model. For that, controlled buckling tests of single trabeculae were carried out from three medial tibia end sections (knee joint).

2021 ◽  
Svetlana M. Napalkova ◽  
Sergey V. Okovityi ◽  
Dmitry Y. Ivkin ◽  
Alexander O. Pyatibrat

Given the data from normative control resources and the research and development information system of the Ministry of Science and Education of the Russian Federation, we were unable to review the results and the quality of publications comprising method development and analytical validation of quantitative and qualitative values of injectable chondroitin sulfate preparations for intramuscular injections. Therefore, the results obtained in the research The development of a method for determining the intrinsic viscosity of an injectable chondroitin sodium sulfate preparation for intramuscular injections of 100 mg/ml, 2 ml remain valid, the method is considered reliable and practical. The materials and methods used in the research The development of a method for determining the intrinsic viscosity of an injectable chondroitin sulfate preparation have provided the possibility to determine the intrinsic viscosity for injectable chondroitin sodium sulfate preparations for intramuscular injections and the use of 0.2 M sodium chloride solution as a solvent. Also, the viscosity of the tested solutions in the concentration range of chondroitin sulfate 4.5-20 mg/ml was accurately сalculated, the value of the intrinsic viscosity determined for each of the preparations under test was in the range of 0.03-0.042 m3/kg. This study presents the results of a review of recent information, published in a number of academic journals, concerning modern approaches to the treatment and major clinical problems when applying chondroprotectors for arthrological diseases treatment. Considering the continuing interest in chondroprotectors, stability problems with formulations and modern possibilities in the application of machine learning in drug discovery, additional pharmaceutical design research (Drug design) is expected - from the docking stage to the quantum calculations stage.

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