Shoot Dry Weight
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
G. S. Isaac ◽  
M. M. El-Deriny ◽  
R. G. Taha

Abstract Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita is among the biotic factors which has greatly affected both the yield and the quality of the tomato crop. The egg parasitic nematode, Purpureocillium lilacinum (Pl) is considered as one of the most promising agents in controlling and overcoming this plant pathogen. The nematicidal effect of the native isolate Pl AUMC 10149 on second stage juvenile’s survival and egg hatching of M. incognita at different times of exposure was tested in vitro. The obtained data showed that Pl gave a maximum percentage of J2 mortality (97.6%) and egg hatching inhibition (79.8%) after 72 hours of exposure. The potentiality of Pl as well as Bio-Nematon to control M. incognita infecting tomato was conducted using different times of application in vivo. Nine treatments with five replicates were used for such bioagents compared with the nematicide Oxamyl. Each seedling was inoculated with 1000 J2s of nematode/pot and 10 mL of Pl (1x1010 CFU/mL) or Bio-Nematon spore suspension (1x108 CFU/mL) 10mL/pot. The results indicated that the most effective treatments in reducing nematode population, number of galls and egg masses of M. incognita in plant roots was performed with treatment by Pl pre-planting and post-infection with Pl (Rf 1.9) giving a significant enhancement in plant length (64.9%), fresh weight (72.52%) and shoot dry weight (163.41%) without negatively impacting environment. Therefore, the present study confirmed that using P. lilacinum AUMC 10149 can be used as a practical supplement to environmentally friendly disease management of root-knot nematodes in Egypt.

Dragana Miljakovic ◽  
Jelena Marinković ◽  
Maja Ignjatov ◽  
Dragana Milosević ◽  
Zorica Nikolić ◽  

The competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation strain against indigenous rhizobia was examined in a soil pot experiment. The effect of inoculation strain was evaluated under different soil conditions: with or without previously grown soybean and applied commercial inoculant. Molecular identification of inoculation strain and investigated rhizobial isolates, obtained from nodules representing inoculated treatments, was performed based on 16S rDNA and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequencing. Inoculation strain showed a significant effect on the investigated parameters in both soils. Higher nodule occupancy (45% vs. 18%), nodule number (111% vs. 5%), nodule dry weight (49% vs. 9%), shoot length (15% vs. 7%), root length (31% vs. 13%), shoot dry weight (34% vs. 11%), shoot nitrogen content (27% vs. 2%), and nodule nitrogen content (9% vs. 5%) was detected in soil without previously grown soybean and applied commercial inoculant. Soil had a significant effect on the shoot, root and nodule nitrogen content, while interaction of experimental factors significantly altered dry weight and nitrogen content of shoots, roots and nodules, as well as number of nodules. Nodulation parameters were significantly related with shoot dry weight, shoot and nodule nitrogen content. Symbiotic performance of inoculation strains in the field could be improved through co-selection for their competitiveness and effectiveness.  

D. Miljaković ◽  
J. Marinković ◽  
G. Tamindžić ◽  
V. Đorđević ◽  
M. Ignjatov ◽  

Background: Bacillus spp., known to promote growth and reduce disease of various field and vegetable crops, are frequently found in soils. The objective of the study was to select effective Bacillus spp. isolates with multiple plant growth properties and antifungal activities and to examine their effect on germination of soybean. Methods: Bacterial isolates were screened for production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores and solubilization of phosphate. The ability of bacterial isolates to inhibit the growth of seven phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean was determined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus spp. were further selected and examined in a seed germination test. Result: All Bacillus spp. isolates were positive for IAA production, while siderophore production and P-solubilization were observed in 80% and 20% bacterial isolates, respectively. Bacillus spp. exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Diaporthe caulivora, followed by Diaporthe sojae, Diaporthe eres, Diaporthe longicolla and Macrophomina phaseolina and the least antagonistic effect toward Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium subglutinans. Selected isolates of B. subtilis significantly affected final germination, shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight and root dry weight of two soybean cultivars. The most effective Bacillus spp. isolates could be used as potential inoculants for improving soybean productivity.

Jurnal Agro ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 164-177
Elis Kartika ◽  
Gusniwati Gusniwati ◽  
Made Deviani Duaja

Grafting bibit kopi memiliki tujuan menghasilkan tanaman dengan karakteristik terbaik dari dua varietas kopi yang disambungkan. Kopi robusta digunakan sebagai batang bawah, karena lebih tahan terhadap kondisi yang tidak menguntungkan di lahan gambut. Upaya peningkatan ketahanan batang bawah dapat memanfaatkan mikoriza dan disambungkan dengan kopi liberika sebagai batang atas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  mendapatkan bibit kopi Liberika unggul hasil grafting dengan kopi Robusta bermikoriza serta mendapatkan panjang entres kopi Liberika yang mampu meningkatkan pertumbuhan bibit kopi Liberika hasil sambung pucuk. Percobaan ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap faktorial dengan dua faktor dan empat ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah inokulasi mikoriza (tanpa aplikasi mikoriza dan aplikasi mikoriza gabungan Glomus sp-1a dan Glomus sp-3c) dan  faktor kedua berupa panjang entres (10, 15, 20 dan 25 cm). Parameter yang diamati adalah persentase keberhasilan sambungan, waktu pecah tunas, pertambahan tinggi bibit, pertambahan jumlah daun, jumlah tunas, bobot kering tunas, dan infeksi mikoriza. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan respons bibit kopi Liberika hasil grafting dengan bibit kopi Robusta bermikoriza terbaik diperoleh pada panjang entres 15 cm, sedangkan yang disambungkan dengan Robusta tidak bermikoriza diperoleh pada panjang entres 25 cm. Pertumbuhan bibit kopi Liberika hasil grafting dengan bibit kopi Robusta terbaik pada berbagai panjang entres diperoleh pada kopi Robusta bermikoriza.” The main goal of coffee grafting is to create a crop with the best characteristic of two coffee varieties in one plant. Robusta coffee is used as the rootstock, which is more resistant to constraints and unfavorable conditions in the peatland. The effort to increase rootstock resistance is inoculated by mycorrhizae and grafted with Liberica coffee as the scion. This study aimed to obtain the best scion length in order to increase the growth of Liberica coffee with Robusta coffee as the inoculated rootstock. The experiment used factorial completely randomized design with the first factor was mycorrhizae inoculation (without inoculation and inoculation of Glomus sp-1a and Glomus sp-3c combination) and the second factor was  the length of scion (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm). The variables observed were the percentage of success grafted plants, shoot break time, growth (plant height, number of leave, number of shoots, and shoot dry weight) and mycorrhizae infection. The results showed that the plant inoculated by mycorrhizae and scion lenght of 15 cm gave the best percentage of the success graft, shoot break time, and growth of scion. While, the root stock without inoculation showed the best result with the scion length 25 cm. The best growth of grafted plant was obtained in all scion length with mycorrhizae inoculation. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 3379-3386
S Syarifinnur ◽  
Yulia Nuraini ◽  
Budi Prasetya

This study was conducted to determine the effect of compost and vermicompost from market organic waste on the soil chemical properties and the growth of maize. The treatments tested were three doses of compost (2.5, 5, and 10 t/ha), three doses of vermicompost (2.5, 5, and 10 t/ha), and one control (without compost or vermicompost). At the time of harvest (10 weeks after planting), maize shoot dry weight, root dry weight, cob length, cob diameter, cob with husk, and cob dry weight, as well as the soil chemical properties organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), available P, total potassium (K), and pH were observed. Maize plant height, leaf number, and stem diameter were observed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after planting. The results showed that the application of compost and vermicompost significantly affected soil chemical properties and the yield of maize. The application of 10 t vermicompost/ha resulted in the highest yield of maize and highest increase of soil organic carbon, total phosphorus available phosphorus, total potassium, and pH by 7.21%, 112.41%, 287.44%, 85.44% and 17.58%, respectively. The application of 10 t compost/ha resulted in the highest increase of soil total N by 44%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 1041-1049
Ahmed A Moursy ◽  
MM Ismail

Effects of boron as an essential nutrient for sugar beet along with gamma irradiation was traced under field conditions. Data demonstrated that the fresh and dry root yields of sugar beet significantly increased with the increase either gamma dose or boron levels comparing to the non-irradiated and born-untreated plants. It seems that root dry weight tended to increase gradually with increasing gamma dose 0 to 100 Gy, then tended to decrease with 200 Gy dose but it still increased with gradual increases of boron levels. In this regard, the best value of root dry weight was achieved with 100 Gy dose interacted with 2.40 kg/ ha of boron addition. On the other hand, plants exposed to 50 Gy and treated with 2.40 kg/ ha reflected the highest shoot dry matter yield compared to other treatments. Relatively, this treatment increased shoot dry weight by about one fold, two folds and near to two folds for the same sequence. Behavior of NPK uptake by shoots has the same trend. Plants irradiated with 100 Gy together with 2.40 kg boric acid ha-1 yielded the highest total soluble solids (TSS%) and produced the best per cent of sucrose. Bangladesh J. Bot. 50(4): 1041-1049, 2021 (December)

Jurnal Wasian ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 115-120
Febryani Febryani ◽  
Faisal Tuheteru ◽  
Asrianti Arif ◽  
Husna Husna

Kalapi (Kalappia celebica Kosterm.) is endemic in Sulawesi and Endangered species. Plant propagation needs to be done but is constrained by limited seeds. Vegetative propagation of plants can be an alternative method such as using the root cutting technique that has been done previously on other types of species. This study aims to determine the success of vegetative propagation of kalapi (K. celebica), an endangered tree species by root cuttings using Rootone F. as root growth regulator. The research took place from March to June 2019 conducted at the plastic house of the Indonesian Mycorrhizal Association (AMI) Southeast Sulawesi Branch, Kendari. This study used a Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisting of 6 treatments of Rootone-F concentration : (a) 0 ppm, (b) 100 ppm, (c) 200 ppm, (d) 300 ppm, (e) 400 ppm and (f) 500 ppm. Each treatment was repeated three times and three units of the plant so that the total experimental unit used was 54 units. The results showed that the provision of Rootone-F could increase the success of the growth of kalapi root cuttings. Rootone-F concentration of 500 ppm gives the best results on the percentage of cuttings, percentage of sprouts, percentage of roots, number of shoots and shoot dry weight. The results showed that kalapi can be propagated by root cuttings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 262
Alawiyah Alawiyah ◽  
Slamet Budi Yuwono ◽  
Melya Riniarti ◽  
Dermiyati Dermiyati ◽  
Christine Wulandari

Open mining activities have caused soil damage, water pollution, air pollution, and damage to vegetation. Limestone post mining is a critical area that must be rehabilitated to be productive again. This problems can be fixed by doing land reclamation activities which mandated in the Mining Law Number 4, 2009. The success of land reclamation is largely determined by the choice of plant species and the provision of appropriate soil enhancers (ameliorant). This study was aimed to analyze the growth response of sengon plants on giving ameliorant in mixed limestone post mining soil. This study was designed in completely randomized design for 7 treatments and 3 replications used combination of ameliorant: P0 (without ameliorant); P1 (AH 4 kg ha-1); P2 (BFA 350 kg ha-1); P3 (FMA 500 spores plant-1); P4 (the combination of AH and FMA); P5 (the combination of BFA and FMA); and P6 (the combination of AH, BFA, and FMA). Data were processed by analysis of variance at the 0,05 significance level followed by the Least Significant Difference test. The results showed that the best growth response of sengon on giving ameliorant in mixed limestone post mining soil was P1 treatment (humic acid material) which significantly increased root length, root volume, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root dry weight, and shoot dry weight in sengon plants. The addition of ameliorant can be recommended to improve the quality of revegetation plants

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Rui M. A. Machado ◽  
Isabel Alves-Pereira ◽  
Yasmin Faty ◽  
Sara Perdigão ◽  
Rui Ferreira

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen source applied by fertigation to an enriched soil with organic compost on plant growth, mineral nutrition, and phytochemical contents in two successive harvests in coriander. The treatments were as follows: unfertilized soil, soil enriched with organic compost, and soil enriched with organic compost to which 60 kg N ha−1 as ammonium nitrate and as ammonium sulfate applied by fertigation were added. Ammonium nitrate addition allowed to obtain a high total fresh yield (3.6 kg m−2) with a low inorganic nitrogen input. Ammonium nitrate increased plant shoot dry weight; fresh yield; and shoot N, K, and Ca uptake in the first harvest. Ammonium nitrate relative to organic compost and to ammonium sulfate increased fresh yield by approximately 57 and 25%, respectively. However, ammonium sulfate in the first harvest greatly increased shoot total phenols, from 137 mgGAE/100 g FW in ammonium nitrate to 280.4 mgGAE/100 g FW. Coriander’s fresh yield, in the second harvest, was unaffected by nitrogen addition. However, ammonium nitrate increased shoot total phenols and FRAP activity. Overall, the shoot phytochemical accumulation in the second harvest was lower than in the first. The combined application of ammonium nitrate and organic compost is a strategy to reduce inorganic nitrogen application.

2021 ◽  
Nguyen Thanh Tam ◽  
Maria Stefanie Dwiyanti ◽  
Shuntaro Sakaguchi ◽  
Yohei Koide ◽  
Le Viet Dung ◽  

Abstract The Mekong Delta River in Vietnam is facing salinity intrusion caused by climate change and sea-level rise that is severely affecting rice cultivation. Here, we evaluated salinity responses of 97 rice accessions (79 landraces and 18 improved accessions) from the Mekong Delta population by adding 100 mM NaCl to the nutrient solution for up to 20 days. We observed a wide distribution in salinity tolerance/sensitivity, with two major peaks across the 97 accessions when using the standard evaluation system (SES) developed by the International Rice Research Institute. SES scores revealed strong negative correlations (ranging from –0.68 to –0.83) with other phenotypic indices, such as shoot elongation length, root elongation length, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. Mineral concentrations of Na+ in roots, stems, and leaves and Ca2+ in roots and stems were positively correlated with SES scores, suggesting that tolerant accessions lower their cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the root cell wall. The salinity tolerance of Mekong Delta accessions was independent from the previously described salinity tolerance–related locus Saltol, which encodes an HKT1-type transporter in the salinity-tolerant cultivars Nona Bokra and Pokkali. Indeed, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using SES scores and shoot dry weight ratios of the 79 accessions as traits identified a single common peak located on chromosome 1. This SNP did not form a linkage group with other nearby SNPs and mapped to the 3′ untranslated region of gene LOC_Os01g32830, over 6.5 Mb away from the Saltol locus. LOC_Os01g32830 encodes chloroplast glycolate/glycerate translocator 1 (OsPLGG1), which is responsible for photorespiration and growth. SES and shoot dry weight ratios differed significantly between the two possible haplotypes at the causal SNP. Through these analyses, we characterize Doc Phung, one of the most salt-tolerant varieties in the Mekong Delta population and a promising new genetic resource.

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