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Published By Sage Publications

1558-691x, 0033-2941

2022 ◽  
pp. 003329412110636
Bruno Faustino

The presence of dysfunctional cognitions about how individuals see themselves and others is a hallmark of psychopathology. The Brief Core Schemas Scale (BCSS) was developed to evaluate adaptive and dysfunctional beliefs about the self and others. This study describes the first psychometric analysis of the BCSS in the Portuguese population. Participants were recruited from community ( N = 320, Mage=27.31, DP = 12.75). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the BCSS factorial structure. Four-factor model revealed moderate to adequate goodness-of-fit indices (χ2/df = 717.1, (246) p = .01; SRMR = .044; RMSEA = .077; CFI/TLI < .90). Negative views of the self and others correlated positively with early maladaptive schemas, distress, and symptomatology and correlated negatively with psychological well-being. An inversed correlational pattern was found with the positive views of the self and others. Despite the model's moderate adherence to the data, results suggest that the BCSS may be an asset in the assessment of dysfunctional and adaptive cognitions about the self and others. Further analysis is required to deepen the psychometric properties of the BCSS in the Portuguese population.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003329412110571
Valentina Massaroni ◽  
Valentina Delle Donne ◽  
Nicoletta Ciccarelli ◽  
Francesca Lombardi ◽  
Silvia Lamonica ◽  

The care engagement of people living with HIV (PLWH) measured with the patient health engagement (PHE) model and its association with HIV-related internalized stigma are not well established. Indeed, currently there are no data yet about the engagement of PLWH measured with the PHE model. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of HIV-related internalized stigma on care engagement and mental health and to fill the lack of data on PHE model applied to PLWH. We found that the internalized stigma score was significantly higher for PLWH ( n=82) in worse care engagement phase and both higher internalized stigma scores and worse engagement were associated to major depression symptoms. In conclusion, our findings describe for the first time the engagement in care of PLWH measured with PHE and highlight the importance of PLWH support to find strategies to cope stigma-related stress and optimize their care engagement.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003329412110659
Liliia Korol ◽  
Alexander W. Fietzer ◽  
Pieter Bevelander ◽  
Ihor Pasichnyk

This study examined the impact of native youth’s subjective well-being on exclusionary attitudes toward immigrants, seeking to understand the relationship between subjective well-being, political distrust, and anti-immigrant attitudes over time. Using longitudinal data, we followed three cohorts of native young adults ( N = 1352; Mage = 22.72, SD = 3.1) in Sweden over a period of 2 years. The results showed that subjective well-being did not predict an increase in anti-immigrant attitudes among native youth, but anti-immigrant attitudes had a significant impact on subjective well-being. The data also found bidirectional and mutually reinforcing relationships between subjective well-being and political distrust, and between political distrust and anti-immigrant attitudes. These results highlight that improving young adults’ subjective well-being represents an important basis for preventing the development of political distrust, which in turn could reduce native youth’s susceptibility to adopt hostile attitudes toward immigrants.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003329412110557
Isabella L. S. Santos ◽  
Carlos E. Pimentel ◽  
Tailson E. Mariano

The present study aimed to observe the relationships between online trolling, exposure to antisocial online content, frequency of social media use, and gender, using the GAM as a theoretical framework. Four hundred twenty-nine Brazilian internet users (mean = 25.07 years; SD = 7.59; EP = 0.36), most of whom were women (71.8%), participated in the survey. Bivariate correlations indicated a positive relationship between online trolling, exposure to antisocial online content (r = 0.12; p < 0.01), Facebook use (r = 0.21; p < 0.01), Twitter Use (r = 0.12; p < 0.01), and gender (r = 0.15; p < 0.01). An explanatory model including these variables was tested, and obtained a significant model fit (GFI = 0.99; Comparative Fit-Index = 0.99; Tucker Lewis Index = 0.97; Root Mean Square Residual = 0.02; RMSEA = 0.02 | CI = 0 .01–0.07 |). Were also observed indirect effects for exposure to antisocial online content through Twitter use and Facebook use on trolling (λ = 0.03; CI = 0.01–0.05; p < 0.05). It is possible to conclude that the research objectives were fulfilled, emphasizing the role of situational variables in the understanding of online trolling.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003329412110648
Stefano Passini

While at first the fear of COVID-19 disease spread was limited by the fact that the pandemic appeared to be confined to China, the growing emergency in Italy and the rapid escalation in positive cases and deaths have made the threat of this disease a national as well as global phenomenon. In the present research, a questionnaire was collected both before ( n = 396) and during ( n = 250) the outbreak of the pandemic in Italy. The aim of the research was to analyze the possible mediation of binding moral foundations on the relationship between concerns over COVID-19 and prejudice vis-à-vis immigrants. As hypothesized, the results show that concerns over COVID-19 increased greatly after the start of the Italian pandemic. Moreover, both before and during the pandemic, the relationship between concerns over COVID-19 and prejudice toward immigrants is mediated by binding moral foundations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003329412110616
Taylor J. Irvine ◽  
Christopher D. Aults ◽  
Meenakshi Menon

This longitudinal study examined the interactive effects of secure attachment and self-esteem on change in internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of preadolescents. 407 youth ( Mage = 11.1 years) completed measures of self-esteem, secure attachment style, and peer nomination inventories tapping internalizing and externalizing problems at the beginning of the fourth and fifth grades. Results suggest that internalizing and externalizing problems may be reduced for securely attached youth with high self-esteem. Implications for future research are examined, along with a discussion on clinical applications of studies involving interaction effects.

2021 ◽  
pp. 003329412110617
Maha Ben Salem ◽  
Nancy J. Karlin

Emerging adulthood is often recognized as a time of uncertainty, confusion, pressure, and stress. This time period also coincides in the Western world with attending college. Many emerging adults arrive at this developmental stage feeling the pressure and obligation for success, but lack the interpersonal resources needed to make required choices. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the psychological and mental state of this particular group by focusing on mechanisms of self-awareness and its connection to psychological health. The present study examines whether an indirect path could explain the relationships between mindfulness, positive thinking, and positive affect. Path analysis was used to test whether decentering fosters positive thinking and positive affect. Participants were surveyed for dispositional mindfulness, frequency of positive and negative feelings, positive thinking, and rumination. Results show decentering mediates between mindfulness and positive affect but does not mediate between mindfulness and positive thinking. Rumination counteracts the effects of mindfulness and predicts negative affect.

2021 ◽  
pp. 003329412110628
Manik Ahuja ◽  
Joy Okoro ◽  
Esther Frimpong ◽  
Riddhi P. Doshi ◽  
Rajvi J. Wani

Depression affects over 17 million American adults yearly and has been identified as the leading cause of disability in people between the ages of 15 and 44 years. There is evidence that feeling neglect or a lack of parental attachment during childhood is associated with depression. One construct that has been overlooked is love from a parent. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between individuals who felt not wanted/loved during adolescence and lifetime depression and to examine this association by gender. We examined 5114 participants aged 24–32 years at Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) public use dataset. We used logistic regression analysis to determine the association between an individual feeling not wanted/loved by their parent/caregiver prior to age 18, covariates, and lifetime depression. We then stratified by gender and ran logistic models for both men and women separately. Overall, 16.2% ( n = 827) reported lifetime depression diagnosis, while 16.5% of the participants reported feeling not wanted/loved “often,” while 29.8% reported it as “sometimes.” Feeling not wanted/loved “often” was associated with higher odds of depression (AOR = 3.00; 95% CI, 2.45–3.66; p < .001) versus “sometimes” (AOR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.31–1.90; p < .001). When stratified by gender, feeling not loved/wanted was associated with depression among both men (AOR = 3.70; 95% CI, 2.60–5.25; p < .001) and women (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI, 2.13–3.48; p < .001). Feeling not loved or wanted by a parent/caregiver during adolescence has serious implications, for both men and women. Future studies should further examine this construct and identify family-based interventions that focus on parent/caregiver and child relationships.

2021 ◽  
pp. 003329412110616
Veljko Jovanović ◽  
Francesco Sarracino ◽  
Milica Lazić ◽  
Vesna Gavrilov-Jerković

Trust is an important correlate of well-being, and it plays an important moderating role against adversity. But does this conclusion also hold during pandemics? We address this question by investigating the role of interpersonal and institutional trust for well-being, as measured by five proxies, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Serbia. We also examined age and gender differences in the relationship between trust and well-being, and tested the protective role of trust among individuals whose well-being might be at risk during the pandemic. The sample included a total of 5776 Serbian adults ( Mage = 37.00 years, 75% female). The results showed that interpersonal trust has a small but significant relationship with well-being, whereas institutional trust has negligible effects. We also found some evidence for the protective role of general interpersonal trust on well-being among individuals with poorer self-rated health and in a poorer financial situation. Our findings confirm the role of interpersonal trust for well-being in times of crisis, and support previous evidence indicating that promoting interpersonal trust should be a core goal of public policy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 003329412110628
Lisa T. Ross ◽  
Jennifer C. Wright

As part of the shift to a more positive psychology, researchers have demonstrated a relatively new and intense fascination with humility. Following a discussion of this construct and its correlates, we investigate how humility relates to personality dimensions, anxiety and depression, love of life and happiness, and self-efficacy in two samples—college students and adult Mturk workers. In both studies, we used the Dual Dimension Humility Scale, a measure that does not conflate the construct with honesty. Among students ( N = 399), aspects humility correlated with dimensions of personality (more conscientiousness and openness, and less agreeableness and neuroticism), less depression, more love of life and happiness, and stronger social self-efficacy. Although fewer associations were found, overall, among adults ( N = 509), aspects of humility correlated with dimensions of personality, less anxiety, and some dimensions of psychological well-being. The most unique contributions of this study include linking humility with college students’ love of life and self-efficacy, and with adults’ well-being. We conclude with a discussion of ideas for future research and potential applications to boost humility.

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