tolerance test
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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 366
Su Hyun Park ◽  
Jiali Yao ◽  
Xin Hui Chua ◽  
Suresh Rama Chandran ◽  
Daphne S. L. Gardner ◽  

We examined how dietary and physical activity behaviors influence fluctuations in blood glucose levels over a seven-day period in people at high risk for diabetes. Twenty-eight participants underwent a mixed meal tolerance test to assess glucose homeostasis at baseline. Subsequently, they wore an accelerometer to assess movement behaviors, recorded their dietary intakes through a mobile phone application, and wore a flash glucose monitoring device that measured glucose levels every 15 min for seven days. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations of metabolic and lifestyle risk factors with glycemic variability. Higher BMI, amount of body fat, and selected markers of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance from the meal tolerance test were associated with higher mean glucose levels during the seven days. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and polyunsaturated fat intake were independently associated with less variation in glucose levels (CV%). Higher protein and polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes were associated with more time-in-range. In contrast, higher carbohydrate intake was associated with less time-in-range. Our findings suggest that dietary composition (a higher intake of polyunsaturated fat and protein and lower intake of carbohydrates) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may reduce fluctuations in glucose levels in persons at high risk of diabetes.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 175
Ji-Won Noh ◽  
Hee-Kwon Yang ◽  
Min-Soo Jun ◽  
Byung-Cheol Lee

Obesity causes low-grade inflammation that results in dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the effect of puerarin on obesity and metabolic complications both in silico and in vivo and investigated the underlying immunological mechanisms. Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: normal chow, control (HFD), HFD + puerarin (PUE) 200 mg/kg, and HFD + atorvastatin (ATO) 10 mg/kg groups. We examined bodyweight, oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, oral fat tolerance test, serum lipids, and adipocyte size. We also analyzed the percentage of total, M1, and M2 adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and the expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL4, CCL5, and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4. In silico, we identified the treatment-targeted genes of puerarin and simulated molecular docking with puerarin and TNF, M1, and M2 macrophages based on functionally enriched pathways. Puerarin did not significantly change bodyweight but significantly improved fat pad weight, adipocyte size, fat area in the liver, free fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol in vivo. In addition, puerarin significantly decreased the ATM population and TNF-α expression. Therefore, puerarin is a potential anti-obesity treatment based on its anti-inflammatory effects in adipose tissue.

2022 ◽  
Christian Metallo ◽  
Michal Handzlik ◽  
Jivani Gengatharan ◽  
Katie Frizzi ◽  
Grace McGregor ◽  

Abstract Type 2 diabetes represents a disease spectrum in which chronic metabolic dysfunction damages multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys, and peripheral nerves1,2. While onset and progression of these co-morbidities are linked with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia3-7, aberrant amino acid metabolism also contributes to pathogenesis of diabetes and potentially its complications8-10. Serine and glycine are closely related non-essential amino acids11,12 that are consistently reduced in patients with metabolic syndrome10,13-16, but the mechanistic drivers of serine deficiency and the downstream metabolic and phenotypic consequences remain unclear. Low systemic serine, a serine-opathy, is also emerging as a hallmark of macular and peripheral nerve disorders. Specifically, serine deficiency correlates positively with impaired visual acuity and peripheral neuropathy (PN)17-19. Here we demonstrate that aberrant serine homeostasis in the liver drives serine and glycine deficiencies in genetically obese and hyperglycaemic mice. This serine-opathy can be diagnosed with a serine tolerance test that quantifies systemic serine disposal. Mimicking these metabolic alterations via dietary serine/glycine restriction together with high fat intake dramatically accelerates thermal hypoalgesia in mice and reduces epidermal sensory nerve density, which are accompanied by extensive sciatic nerve lipid remodeling. These phenotypes were subsequently normalized by myriocin, linking serine-associated PN with sphingolipid biosynthesis. These findings identify systemic serine deficiency and dyslipidemia as novel risk factors for PN that may be exploited therapeutically.

Duong Duc Pham ◽  
Jaekyung Song ◽  
Yunwan Jeon ◽  
Ibrahimi Hajar ◽  
Chae Hun Leem

Abstract Context Impact of baseline and alteration of metabolic parameters (MPs), including plasma glucose (PGs) testing, insulin resistance surrogates, and lipid profile and their mutual interactions on the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has not been investigated systematically. Objective To access the association of the past variability (V), past mean (M), and the baseline (B) values of various MPs and their mutual interaction with the risk of T2DM. Design Longitudinal analysis from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Setting Community-based Participants 3829 non-diabetic participants with completed MPs measurements during three biannually visits were followed up over the next 10 years. Outcomes Incidence of T2DM during the follow up. Results Among predictors, PG concentrations measured during the oral glucose tolerance test were the most prominent T2DM determinants, in which the M of the average value of fasting PG, 1-h, and 2-h PGs had the strongest discriminative power (hazard ratios and 95% CI for an increment of SD: 3.00 (2.5–3.26), AUC: 0.82). The M values of MPs were superior to their B and V values in predicting T2DM, especially among post-load PGs. Various mutual interactions between indices and among MPs were found. The most consistent interactants were the M values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the M and V values of fasting PG. The findings were similar in normal tolerance glucose participants and were confirmed by sensitivity analyses. Conclusion The post-load PGs, past alteration of measurements, and mutual interactions among indices of MPs are important risk factors for T2DM development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 384
Ilona Juchnicka ◽  
Mariusz Kuźmicki ◽  
Piotr Zabielski ◽  
Adam Krętowski ◽  
Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska ◽  

We hypothesized that sphingolipids may be early biomarkers of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, 520 women with normal fasting plasma glucose levels were recruited in the first trimester and tested with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in the 24th–28th week of pregnancy. Serum sphingolipids concentrations were measured in the first and the second trimester by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) in 53 patients who were diagnosed with GDM, as well as 82 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 32 non-pregnant women. In the first trimester, pregnant women showed higher concentrations of C16:0, C18:1, C22:0, C24:1, and C24:0-Cer and lower levels of sphinganine (SPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) compared to non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, we observed significant changes in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C24:1-Cer levels in the GDM group and C18:1 and C24:0-Cer in NGT. The GDM (pre-conversion) and NGT groups in the first trimester differed solely in the levels of C18:1-Cer (AUC = 0.702 p = 0.008), also considering glycemia. Thus, C18:1-Cer revealed its potential as a GDM biomarker. Sphingolipids are known to be a modulator of insulin resistance, and our results indicate that ceramide measurements in early pregnancy may help with GDM screening.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Stephanie M. van der Voorn ◽  
Mimount Bourfiss ◽  
Anneline S. J. M. te Riele ◽  
Karim Taha ◽  
Marc A. Vos ◽  

Background: Pathogenic variants in phospholamban (PLN, like p. Arg14del), are found in patients diagnosed with arrhythmogenic (ACM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Fibrosis formation in the heart is one of the hallmarks in PLN p.Arg14del carriers. During collagen synthesis and breakdown, propeptides are released into the circulation, such as procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP) and C-terminal telopeptide collagen type I (ICTP).Aim: To investigate if PICP/ICTP levels in blood are correlative biomarkers for clinical disease severity and outcome in PLN p.Arg14del variant carriers.Methods: Serum and EDTA blood samples were collected from 72 PLN p.Arg14del carriers (age 50.5 years, 63% female) diagnosed with ACM (n = 12), DCM (n = 14), and preclinical variant carriers (n = 46). PICP levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay and ICTP with a radio immuno-assay. Increased PICP/ICTP ratios suggest a higher collagen deposition. Clinical data including electrocardiographic, and imaging results were adjudicated from medical records.Results: No correlation between PICP/ICTP ratios and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was found. Moderate correlations were found between the PICP/ICTP ratio and end-diastolic/systolic volume (both rs = 0.40, n = 23, p = 0.06). PICP/ICTP ratio was significantly higher in patients with T wave inversion (TWI), especially in leads V4–V6, II, III, and aVF (p < 0.022) and in patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) during an exercise tolerance test (p = 0.007).Conclusion: High PICP/ICTP ratios correlated with clinical parameters, such as TWI and PVCs. Given the limited size and heterogeneity of the patient group, additional studies are required to substantiate the incremental prognostic value of these fibrosis biomarkers in PLN p.Arg14del patients.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 311
Gabriele Brosolo ◽  
Andrea Da Porto ◽  
Luca Bulfone ◽  
Laura Scandolin ◽  
Antonio Vacca ◽  

Recent evidence indicates that mildly increased fasting and post-oral load blood glucose concentrations contribute to development of organ damage in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. In previous studies, vitamin D deficiency was associated with decreased glucose tolerance. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between serum 25(OH)D levels and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in hypertension. In 187 nondiabetic essential hypertensive patients free of cardiovascular or renal complications, we measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and performed a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Patients with 25(OH)D deficiency/insufficiency were older and had significantly higher blood pressure, fasting and post-OGTT (G-AUC) glucose levels, post-OGTT insulin (I-AUC), PTH levels, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome than patients with normal serum 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with age, blood pressure, fasting glucose, G-AUC, triglycerides, and serum calcium and PTH, while no significant relationships were found with body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin, I-AUC, HOMA index, and renal function. In a multivariate regression model, greater G-AUC was associated with lower 25(OH)D levels independently of BMI and seasonal vitamin D variations. Thus, in nondiabetic hypertensive patients, 25(OH)D deficiency/insufficiency could contribute to impaired glucose tolerance without directly affecting insulin sensitivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Naoaki Sakata ◽  
Gumpei Yoshimatsu ◽  
Kiyoshi Chinen ◽  
Ryo Kawakami ◽  
Shohta Kodama

AbstractAlthough islet transplantation (ITx) is a promising therapy for severe diabetes mellitus, further advancements are necessary. Adiponectin, an adipokine that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism, exerts favorable effects on islets, such as reinforcement of the insulin-releasing function. This study evaluated the possibility of adiponectin use to improve ITx outcomes. We treated mouse islets with 10 µg/mL recombinant mouse adiponectin by overnight culture and then assessed the insulin-releasing, angiogenic, and adhesion functions of the islets. Furthermore, 80 syngeneic islet equivalents with or without adiponectin treatment were transplanted into the renal subcapsular space of diabetic mice. In in vitro assessment, released insulin at high glucose stimulation, insulin content, and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin β1 were improved in adiponectin-treated islets. Furthermore, adiponectin treatment improved the therapeutic effect of ITx on blood glucose levels and promoted angiogenesis of the transplanted islets. However, the therapeutic effect was not pronounced in glucose tolerance test results. In conclusion, adiponectin treatment had preferable effects in the insulin-releasing, angiogenic, and adhesion functions of islets and contributed to the improvement of ITx. The future use of adiponectin treatment in clinical settings to improve ITx outcomes should be investigated.

Evelyne París-Oller ◽  
Cristina Soriano-Úbeda ◽  
Ramsés Belda-Pérez ◽  
Lucía Sarriás-Gil ◽  
Jordana S. Lopes ◽  

Abstract The addition of reproductive fluids (RF) to the culture media has shown benefits in different embryonic traits but its long-term effects on the offspring phenotype are still unknown. We aimed to describe such effects in pigs. Blood samples and growth parameters were collected from piglets derived from in vitro-produced embryos (IVP) with or without RF added in the culture media versus those artificially inseminated (AI), from day 0 to month 6 of life. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed on day 45 of life. We show here the first comparative data of the growth of animals produced through different assisted reproductive techniques, demonstrating differences between groups. Overall, there was a tendency to have a larger size at birth and faster growth in animals derived from in vitro fertilization and embryo culture versus AI, although this trend was diminished by the addition of RFs to the culture media. Similarly, small differences in hematological indices and glucose tolerance between animals derived from AI and those derived from IVP, with a sex-dependent effect, tended to fade in the presence of RF. The addition of RF to the culture media could contribute to minimizing the phenotypical differences between the in vitro-derived and AI offspring, particularly in males.

2022 ◽  
BeiBei GAO ◽  
Qiong SHEN ◽  
Ying WU ◽  
MengDie CAO ◽  
QiWu ZHANG ◽  

Abstract AimsSerum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We want to investigate the levels of these amino acids in women with GDM and subsequently examine their changes in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methods43 GDMs and 67 non-GDMs during their second trimester were recruited in this study. A 75-g OGTT was administered, and fasting, 1-h, and 2-h blood samples were obtained. Serum BCAA and AAA levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.ResultsThe differences of BCAAs and AAAs between women with GDM and controls during their second trimester were not evident during fasting, while became significant after a 75-g glucose load. Glucose ingestion decreased the levels of BCAAs and AAAs in both groups. Notably, GDMs showed a delayed and blunted decrease of these amino acids compared to non-GDMs. The risks of 2-h change of BCAAs and AAAs for GDM were significant.ConclusionsWe identified that the differences of BCAAs and AAAs between women with GDM and controls during their second trimester, which were not evident during fasting, could be provoked by performing OGTT.

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