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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marilyn Tseng ◽  
Camille J. Grigsby ◽  
Abigail Austin ◽  
Samir Amin ◽  
Aydin Nazmi

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that ultra-processed foods (UPFs) lead to elevated risk of obesity-related conditions, but UPF measurement has been criticized for its subjectivity and lack of clarity on biological mechanism. Sensory-related industrial additives (SRIAs) are a defining feature of UPFs and may encourage overconsumption by enhancing the sensory quality of foods. However, practical challenges have prevented systematic incorporation of SRIAs into UPF measurement.Objective: The objectives of this work were to describe a new, open-source ingredient list search method and to apply this method to describe the presence of SRIAs in US packaged foods.Methods: We developed computer coding to search for 64 common SRIAs related to sweetness, flavor, appearance, and texture in 241,688 foods in the US Branded Food Products Database (BFPD). The BFPD includes manufacturer-provided ingredient lists for ~300,000 branded and private label food items. We determined the total number of SRIAs (0–64) and the number of different types of SRIAs (sweetness, flavor, appearance, texture, 0–4) in each food, then calculated the percent of all foods with SRIAs. This was done for all foods, and by food group for 224,098 items with food group data.Results: Most (64.9%) foods in the BFPD contained at least one SRIA, and more than a third had at least three. Sweets (89.5%), beverages (84.9%), and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (82.0%) were the most likely to contain SRIAs. With respect to SRIA types, 25.7% of all food items had at least three of the four types of SRIAs examined, with texture-related additives being the most common. Among sweets, 20% had all four types of SRIAs.Discussion: This work confirms the high prevalence of SRIAs in US packaged foods. They are ubiquitous in sweets, beverages, and RTE foods, but also present in substantial proportions of other food groups. Quantifying the presence of SRIAs in ingredient lists offers a novel way to identify UPFs for research; to distinguish more vs. less ultra-processed foods; and to test whether UPFs increase risk for obesity-related conditions through additives that enhance the product's sensory qualities.


Author(s):  
Gisela Orozco

AbstractSince 2005, thousands of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been published, identifying hundreds of thousands of genetic variants that increase risk of complex traits such as autoimmune diseases. This wealth of data has the potential to improve patient care, through personalized medicine and the identification of novel drug targets. However, the potential of GWAS for clinical translation has not been fully achieved yet, due to the fact that the functional interpretation of risk variants and the identification of causal variants and genes are challenging. The past decade has seen the development of great advances that are facilitating the overcoming of these limitations, by utilizing a plethora of genomics and epigenomics tools to map and characterize regulatory elements and chromatin interactions, which can be used to fine map GWAS loci, and advance our understanding of the biological mechanisms that cause disease.


Author(s):  
Bess Dawson-Hughes ◽  
Jifan Wang ◽  
Kathryn Barger ◽  
Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari ◽  
Christopher T Sempos ◽  
...  

Abstract Context Supplementation with vitamin D has the potential to both reduce and increase risk of falling, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) may contribute to fall risk. Objective To assess the associations of intra-trial mean circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH on incident falls in healthy older adults. Design Observational within a clinical trial. Setting The Bone Metabolism Laboratory at the USDA Nutrition Center at Tufts University. Participants 410 men and women age 65 years and older who participated in the 3-year Boston STOP IT trial to determine the effect of supplementation with 700 IU of vitamin D3 plus calcium on incident falls (secondary endpoint). Intra-trial exposures of 25(OH)D and PTH were calculated as the mean of biannual measures up to and including the first fall. Main outcome measures: incidence of first fall Results Intra-trial mean 25(OH)D was significantly associated with risk of falling in a U-shaped pattern; the range associated with minimal risk of falling was approximately 20-40 ng/ml. PTH was not significantly associated with risk of falling. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of maintaining the circulating 25(OH)D level between 20 and 40 ng/ml, the range that is also recommended for bone health. At PTH levels within the normal range, there was no detectible independent association of PTH with fall risk.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marzieh Khani ◽  
Elizabeth Gibbons ◽  
Jose Bras ◽  
Rita Guerreiro

AbstractThe search for rare variants in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is usually deemed a high-risk - high-reward situation. The challenges associated with this endeavor are real. Still, the application of genome-wide technologies to large numbers of cases and controls or to small, well-characterized families has started to be fruitful.Rare variants associated with AD have been shown to increase risk or cause disease, but also to protect against the development of AD. All of these can potentially be targeted for the development of new drugs.Multiple independent studies have now shown associations of rare variants in NOTCH3, TREM2, SORL1, ABCA7, BIN1, CLU, NCK2, AKAP9, UNC5C, PLCG2, and ABI3 with AD and suggested that they may influence disease via multiple mechanisms. These genes have reported functions in the immune system, lipid metabolism, synaptic plasticity, and apoptosis. However, the main pathway emerging from the collective of genes harboring rare variants associated with AD is the Aβ pathway. Associations of rare variants in dozens of other genes have also been proposed, but have not yet been replicated in independent studies. Replication of this type of findings is one of the challenges associated with studying rare variants in complex diseases, such as AD. In this review, we discuss some of these primary challenges as well as possible solutions.Integrative approaches, the availability of large datasets and databases, and the development of new analytical methodologies will continue to produce new genes harboring rare variability impacting AD. In the future, more extensive and more diverse genetic studies, as well as studies of deeply characterized families, will enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis and put us on the correct path for the development of successful drugs.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Author(s):  
Ami S. Ikeda ◽  
Valerie S. Knopik ◽  
L. Cinnamon Bidwell ◽  
Stephanie H. Parade ◽  
Sherryl H. Goodman ◽  
...  

In utero cannabis exposure can disrupt fetal development and increase risk for various behavioral disruptions, including hyperactivity, inattention, delinquent behaviors, and later substance abuse, among others. This review summarizes the findings from contemporary investigations linking prenatal cannabis exposure to the development of psychopathology and identifies the limitations within the literature, which constrain our interpretations and generalizability. These limitations include a lack of genetic/familial control for confounding and limited data examining real world products, the full range of cannabinoids, and motives for use specifically in pregnant women. Taken together, our review reveals the need to continue to improve upon study designs in order to allow researchers to accurately draw conclusions about the development of behavioral consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure. Findings from such studies would inform policy and practices regarding cannabis use during pregnancy and move the field toward developing a comprehensive teratogenic profile of cannabis similar to what is characterized in the prenatal alcohol and tobacco literature.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jérôme Garneau ◽  
Mélanie Hébert ◽  
Eunice You ◽  
Alexandre Lachance ◽  
Serge Bourgault ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare outcomes of primary retinal detachment (RD) repair in retinoschisis-associated RD (RSRD) and rhegmatogenous RD (RRD). Methods This is a retrospective observational cohort study. Charts of 2247 consecutive patients operated for RD repair at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec – Université Laval between 2014 and 2018 were reviewed. Patients with RSRD and RRD were included to compare the visual and anatomical outcomes of both groups. Results There were 41 patients (1.8%) with RSRD and 1661 patients (74%) with RRD. RSRD patients had more primary repair failures (n = 9, 22%, vs. n = 166, 10%; p = 0.013). The primary anatomical success rates for pars plana vitrectomy with and without scleral buckle (PPV-SB vs. PPV) as primary repair method were similar in both RSRD patients (n = 11/14, 79% vs. n = 20/25, 80%; p = 0.92) and RRD patients (n = 751/827, 91% vs. n = 641/721, 89%; p = 0.21). At final follow-up, best corrected visual acuity (VA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) was 0.30 [0.10, 0.88] and 0.18 [0.10, 0.40] (p = 0.03) in RSRD patients and RRD patients, respectively. Presence of retinoschisis was associated with worse final VA (β 0.082, p < 0.001). Other predictive variables included female sex, macula-off presentation, number of RD quadrants involved, longer symptoms duration, worse baseline VA, and primary repair failure. The greatest predictors were worse baseline VA, primary repair failure, and macula-off status at presentation. Presence of retinoschisis did not significantly increase risk of primary repair failure in multivariable analysis (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.50–4.17; p = 0.49). Symptoms duration was the greatest effect factor associated with for primary repair failure (OR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.12–1.69; p = 0.003). Conclusions RSRD is associated with more primary repair failure in univariate analysis, but not in multivariate analysis after adjusting for symptoms duration. It is however associated with worse final VA even after adjusting for primary repair failure. Both PPV and PPV-SB are valid repair methods for RSRD. However, RSRD remains a challenge to treat.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 271
Author(s):  
Anna Kurek-Górecka ◽  
Karolina Walczyńska-Dragon ◽  
Rafael Felitti ◽  
Stefan Baron ◽  
Paweł Olczyk

Conducted studies indicate the relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Moreover, the latest research indicated that cariogenic bacteria may severely influence the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increase risk of COVID-19 complications. This article aims to review various applications of propolis and pay attention to a healthy diet rich in polyphenols, which may allow the reduction of dental plaque accumulation. A literature review has been conducted from June until November 2021. It showed that propolis could be a useful agent in decreasing the accumulation of dental plaque. Moreover, a diet rich in polyphenols prevents cariogenic bacteria and reduces the accumulation of dental plaque. A reduction of a dental plaque may influence the risk of a severe course of COVID-19. Therefore, propolis and a diet rich in polyphenols may play an important role in prophylaxis of systemic diseases. Recently, it has been proven that oral infection may affect cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, nervous system, as well as may be a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. These aspects should stimulate clinicians to further research about polyphenols.


Author(s):  
Hand F Mahmoud ◽  
Hebatullah EMZ Elmedany

Introduction: Fall is considered by far one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Fall is almost always multifactorial. This study looks into the relation between different comorbidities, polypharmacy and falls.Methods: A descriptive and prospective study, the study population comprised 150 elderly patients aged > 60 years old, males and females, patients with previous history of falls are excluded. Comorbidity burden, polypharmacy and risk of falls were assessed.Results and Discussion: There was a significant positive correlation between Number of comorbidities, medications and risk of falls and there was a significant association between high risk of falls and presence of DM, PVD, OLD CVA and UI. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between age and risk of falls.Conclusion: Multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy and increasing age increase risk of falls.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 75-79


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