ultra high pressure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
P. Bouilhol ◽  
B. Debret ◽  
E. C. Inglis ◽  
M. Warembourg ◽  
T. Grocolas ◽  
...  

AbstractSerpentinites are an important sink for both inorganic and organic carbon, and their behavior during subduction is thought to play a fundamental role in the global cycling of carbon. Here we show that fluid-derived veins are preserved within the Zermatt-Saas ultra-high pressure serpentinites providing key evidence for carbonate mobility during serpentinite devolatilisation. We show through the O, C, and Sr isotope analyses of vein minerals and the host serpentinites that about 90% of the meta-serpentinite inorganic carbon is remobilized during slab devolatilisation. In contrast, graphite-like carbonaceous compounds remain trapped within the host rock as inclusions within metamorphic olivine while the bulk elemental and isotope composition of organic carbon remains relatively unchanged during the subduction process. This shows a decoupling behavior of carbon during serpentinite dehydration in subduction zones. This process will therefore facilitate the transfer of inorganic carbon to the mantle wedge and the preferential slab sequestration of organic carbon en route to the deep mantle.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael Pierro ◽  
Andrew Laich ◽  
Justin J. Urso ◽  
Cory Kinney ◽  
Subith Vasu ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
pp. 49-59
Author(s):  
Iris Loira ◽  
Carlos Escott ◽  
Juan Manuel Del Fresno ◽  
María Antonia Bañuelos ◽  
Carmen González ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 102-115
Author(s):  
Toshihiko Yoshimura ◽  
Masataka Ijiri ◽  
Kazunori Sato

In the present work, a strong magnetic field was applied near the outlet of the water jet nozzle to promote the generation of multifunction cavitation bubbles. Because these bubbles contained charged species, the bubbles experienced a Lorentz force due to the magnetic field and collided with greater force. As such, the internal bubble pressure exceeded the threshold value required for fusion to occur. The expansion of these charged bubbles in response to ultrasonic irradiation affected adjacent charged bubbles so that the energy density of the atoms in the bubbles was greater than the fusion threshold. The results of this work strongly suggest that the formation of bubbles via the UTPC process in conjunction with a strong magnetic field may result in bubble fusion.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guodong David Zhan ◽  
Bodong Li ◽  
Timothy Eric Moellendick ◽  
Duanwei He ◽  
Jianhui Xu

Abstract PDC drill bits are the primary drilling tools for oil and gas in most of formations. In a PDC drill bit, PDC cutters are key cutting components to engage with these formations. However, there is often a big challenge for today's PDC drill bits when drilling very hard and abrasive formation. The main weakness in the PDC cutter is due to the unavoidable use of metallic catalyst which is used to bond the diamond grains in the PDC cutters. The thermal expansion of the metallic catalysts resulting from high frictional heat at the cutter/rock interface during drilling operation is higher than that of diamond grains, causing the thermal stress between the metallic catalyst and diamond grain which can break the PDC cutter. Therefore, development of catalyst-free PDC cutters would be a game-changing technology for drill bit by delivering significant increase in performance, durability, and drilling economics. In this study, an innovative ultra-high pressure and ultra-high temperature technology was developed with ultra-high pressures up to 35 GPa, much higher than current PDC cutter technology. We report a new type of catalyst-free PDC cutting material, synthesized under one of conditions using ultra-high pressure of 16 GPa. The new material breaks all single-crystal-diamond indenters in Vickers hardness testing which sets a new world record as the hardest diamond material as of today. Also, the material shows the highest thermal stability in the family of diamonds in air at 1,200°C, which is about 600 °C higher than current PDC cutters. As a consequence of these superior properties, this new material exhibited industry-recorded wear resistance, which is four times of that of current PDC cutters. All of these achievements demonstrated a breakthrough in PDC cutter technology development and presented a feasibility for the goal of "One-Run-To-TD" game-changing drilling technology.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chengyi Sun ◽  
Yuqing Hu ◽  
Xietian Yu ◽  
Zhijie Zhu ◽  
Shuai Hao ◽  
...  

Abstract Native rice starches were treated with five periods of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) under each of 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 MPa, respectively. The morphological, structural and physicochemical properties of starches treated with UHPH were examined. The mean particle diameter of starch nanoparticles ranged between 154.20 and 260.40 nm. SEM revealed that the granular amorphous region of starch granules was damaged under pressures between 60 and 80 MPa, and the crystalline region was further destroyed under pressures as high as 100–160 MPa. DSC demonstrated that the gelatinization temperatures and enthalpies of nanoparticles reduced. The relative crystallinity reduced from 22.90 to 13.61% as the pressure increased. FTIR showed that the absorbance ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 decreased, and increased at 1022/995 cm−1. RVA results indicated that the viscosity of starch samples increased between 60 and 120 MPa, and the reverse effect was observed under 140 and 160 MPa.


Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1863
Author(s):  
Antonio Morata ◽  
Carlos Escott ◽  
Iris Loira ◽  
Carmen López ◽  
Felipe Palomero ◽  
...  

Anthocyanins are flavonoid pigments broadly distributed in plants with great potential to be used as food colorants due to their range of colors, innocuous nature, and positive impact on human health. However, these molecules are unstable and affected by pH changes, oxidation and high temperatures, making it very important to extract them using gentle non-thermal technologies. The use of emerging non-thermal techniques such as High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP), Ultra High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH), Pulsed Electric Fields (PEFs), Ultrasound (US), irradiation, and Pulsed Light (PL) is currently increasing for many applications in food technology. This article reviews their application, features, advantages and drawbacks in the extraction of anthocyanins from grapes. It shows how extraction can be significantly increased with many of these techniques, while decreasing extraction times and maintaining antioxidant capacity.


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