Brittle ductile transition of POE toughened HDPE and its lowest rigidity loss: effect of HDPE molecular weight

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
Dongdong Wang ◽  
Fushi Li ◽  
Xiangming Xu ◽  
Lin Zhong ◽  
Chong Guan ◽  
Suresh Ahuja

Hardness and modulus of a polymer composite is known to depend on its structure, molecular weight, number of segments between entanglements and additives (filler). Nano-indentation is used increasingly as a powerful tool to determine hardness and visco-elastic modulus of polymer surfaces linear, cross-linked or composites. Hysitron Nanoindenter was used in our investigation of contact deformation of surfaces of filled polycarbonates supported on aluminum substrate. Bar coatings of polymer films were made from solution and dried all at 110C for half an hour. The results show that filled polycarbonate gives higher hardness than unfilled polycarbonate, which can give significantly different temperature dependence depending on molecular weight of the polycarbonate and structure of the filler. Depending on the type of filler and its concentration, the polycarbonate composite exhibits brittle-ductile transition at different strains. This behavior is analyzed in terms of chain mobility and free volume in the composite.

2017 ◽  
Vol 37 (3) ◽  
pp. 239-245 ◽  
Baijun Liu ◽  
Yinglin Wang ◽  
Yuan Gao ◽  
Rui Zhong ◽  
Fucai Zhang ◽  

Abstract Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) grafted copolymer prepared by emulsion polymerization was used to modify different molecular weight poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) resins. The effects of the molecular weight of the PVC resins on dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) of PVC/ABS blends and matrix plasticizing behavior on the impact mechanical properties and the morphology were investigated. The tan δ peaks of PVC/ABS blends occurred at the same temperature obtained by DMA, indicating that miscibility of PVC/ABS blends was independent of the molecular weight of PVC. The notched Izod impact test results indicated that the amount of polybutadiene (PB) rubber needed for the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) increases together with the molecular weight of PVC when milled at 165°C. Increasing the operation temperature and adding the plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP) could change the matrix plasticizing extent and the BDT. At a milling temperature of 165°C, the BDT was reached only with 3.6 wt% PB when DOP was added, in contrast to the addition of 7.2 wt% PB in the absence of DOP. The morphology of different plasticized degree of PVC/ABS blends was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing that the PVC-1/ABS blends milled at 165°C showed a larger unstained area than the other series of PVC blends.

Douglas C. Barker

A number of satisfactory methods are available for the electron microscopy of nicleic acids. These methods concentrated on fragments of nuclear, viral and mitochondrial DNA less than 50 megadaltons, on denaturation and heteroduplex mapping (Davies et al 1971) or on the interaction between proteins and DNA (Brack and Delain 1975). Less attention has been paid to the experimental criteria necessary for spreading and visualisation by dark field electron microscopy of large intact issociations of DNA. This communication will report on those criteria in relation to the ultrastructure of the (approx. 1 x 10-14g) DNA component of the kinetoplast from Trypanosomes. An extraction method has been developed to eliminate native endonucleases and nuclear contamination and to isolate the kinetoplast DNA (KDNA) as a compact network of high molecular weight. In collaboration with Dr. Ch. Brack (Basel [nstitute of Immunology), we studied the conditions necessary to prepare this KDNA Tor dark field electron microscopy using the microdrop spreading technique.

W. Bernard

In comparison to many other fields of ultrastructural research in Cell Biology, the successful exploration of genes and gene activity with the electron microscope in higher organisms is a late conquest. Nucleic acid molecules of Prokaryotes could be successfully visualized already since the early sixties, thanks to the Kleinschmidt spreading technique - and much basic information was obtained concerning the shape, length, molecular weight of viral, mitochondrial and chloroplast nucleic acid. Later, additonal methods revealed denaturation profiles, distinction between single and double strandedness and the use of heteroduplexes-led to gene mapping of relatively simple systems carried out in close connection with other methods of molecular genetics.

L. W. Labaw

Crystals of a human γGl immunoglobulin have the external morphology of diamond shaped prisms. X-ray studies have shown them to be monoclinic, space group C2, with 2 molecules per unit cell. The unit cell dimensions are a = 194.1, b = 91.7, c = 51.6Å, 8 = 102°. The relatively large molecular weight of 151,000 and these unit cell dimensions made this a promising crystal to study in the EM.Crystals similar to those used in the x-ray studies were fixed at 5°C for three weeks in a solution of mother liquor containing 5 x 10-5M sodium phosphate, pH 7.0, and 0.03% glutaraldehyde. They were postfixed with 1% osmium tetroxide for 15 min. and embedded in Maraglas the usual way. Sections were cut perpendicular to the three crystallographic axes. Such a section cut with its plane perpendicular to the z direction is shown in Fig. 1.This projection of the crystal in the z direction shows periodicities in at least four different directions but these are only seen clearly by sighting obliquely along the micrograph.

M. Boublik ◽  
G. Thornton ◽  
G. Oostergetel ◽  
J.F. Hainfeld ◽  
J.S. Wall

Understanding the structural complexity of ribosomes and their role in protein synthesis requires knowledge of the conformation of their components - rRNAs and proteins. Application of dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), electrical discharge of the support carbon film in an atmosphere of pure nitrogen, and determination of the molecular weight of individual rRNAs enabled us to obtain high resolution electron microscopic images of unstained freeze-dried rRNA molecules from BHK cells in a form suitable for evaluation of their 3-D structure. Preliminary values for the molecular weight of 28S RNA from the large and 18S RNA from the small ribosomal subunits as obtained by mass measurement were 1.84 x 106 and 0.97 x 106, respectively. Conformation of rRNAs consists, in general, of alternating segments of intramolecular hairpin stems and single stranded loops in a proportion which depends on their ionic environment, the Mg++ concentration in particular. Molecules of 28S RNA (Fig. 1) and 18S RNA (not shown) obtained by freeze-drying from a solution of 60 mM NH+4 acetate and 2 mM Mg++ acetate, pH 7, appear as partially unfolded coils with compact cores suggesting a high degree of ordered secondary structure.

C. E. Cluthe ◽  
G. G. Cocks

Aqueous solutions of a 1 weight-per cent poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) were degassed under vacuum, transferred to a parallel plate viscometer under a nitrogen gas blanket, and exposed to Co60 gamma radiation. The Co60 source was rated at 4000 curies, and the dose ratewas 3.8x105 rads/hr. The poly (ethylene oxide) employed in the irradiations had an initial viscosity average molecular weight of 2.1 x 106.The solutions were gelled by a free radical reaction with dosages ranging from 5x104 rads to 4.8x106 rads.

Kenneth M. Richter ◽  
John A. Schilling

The structural unit of solid state collagen complexes has been reported by Porter and Vanamee via EM and by Cowan, North and Randall via x-ray diffraction to be an ellipsoidal unit of 210-270 A. length by 50-100 A. diameter. It subsequently was independently demonstrated by us in dog tendon, dermis, and induced complexes. Its detailed morphologic, dimensional and molecular weight (MW) aspects have now been determined. It is pear-shaped in long profile with m diameters of 57 and 108 A. and m length of 263 A. (Fig. 1, tendon, KMnO4 fixation, Na-tungstate; Fig. 2a, schematic of unit in long, C, and x-sectional profiles of its thin, xB, and bulbous, xA portions; Fig. 2b, tendon essentially unmodified by ether and 0.4 N NaOH treatment, Na-tungstate). The unit consists of a uniquely coild cable, c, of ṁ 22.9 A. diameter and length of 2580-3316 A. The cable consists of three 2nd-strands, s, each of m 10.6 A.

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