weight reduction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Igor B. Mekjavic ◽  
Mojca Amon ◽  
Elizabeth J. Simpson ◽  
Roger Kölegård ◽  
Ola Eiken ◽  

Due to the observations of weight loss at high altitude, normobaric hypoxia has been considered as a method of weight loss in obese individuals. With this regard, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hypoxia per se on metabolism in men with excess weight. Eight men living with excess weight (125.0 ± 17.7 kg; 30.5 ± 11.1 years, BMI: 37.6 ± 6.2 kg⋅m–2) participated in a randomized cross-over study comprising two 10-day confinements: normobaric (altitude of facility ≃ 940 m) normoxia (NORMOXIA; PIO2 = 133 mmHg), and normobaric hypoxia (HYPOXIA). The PIO2 in the latter was reduced from 105 (simulated altitude of 2,800 m) to 98 mmHg (simulated altitude of 3,400 m over 10 days. Before, and at the end of each confinement, participants completed a meal tolerance test (MTT). Resting energy expenditure (REE), circulating glucose, GLP-1, insulin, catecholamines, ghrelin, peptide-YY (PYY), leptin, gastro-intestinal blood flow, and appetite sensations were measured in fasted and postprandial states. Fasting REE increased after HYPOXIA (+358.0 ± 49.3 kcal⋅day–1, p = 0.03), but not after NORMOXIA (−33.1 ± 17.6 kcal⋅day–1). Postprandial REE was also significantly increased after HYPOXIA (p ≤ 0.05), as was the level of PYY. Furthermore, a tendency for decreased energy intake was concomitant with a significant body weight reduction after HYPOXIA (−0.7 ± 0.2 kg) compared to NORMOXIA (+1.0 ± 0.2 kg). The HYPOXIA trial increased the metabolic requirements, with a tendency toward decreased energy intake concomitant with increased PYY levels supporting the notion of a hypoxia-induced appetite inhibition, that could potentially lead to body weight reduction. The greater postprandial blood-glucose response following hypoxic confinement, suggests the potential development of insulin resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Venkateshwarlu Mogullapally ◽  
Sanju Kumar ◽  
Bukkapatna Ananthappa Rajeevalochanam ◽  
Rashmi Rao

Abstract Bladed disks are important components of gas turbine engine. Rotor disk spool drum assemblies of gas turbine engine constitute 20–25% of total engine weight. Increasing thrust-to-weight ratio and engine life is paramount for designers. Blisk reduces significantly weight of rotor, compared against conventional disks for aero engines. This paper brings out specific challenges faced while re-designing bladed disk into blisks including structural integrity aspects under various operating loads. This paper presents a case study on re-design of typical compressor bladed disk into a blisk, without changing the flow path or airfoil configuration, within space constraints. Weight reduction of rotor disk is carried out using shape optimization technique. Blisk configuration is derived from existing bladed disk general arrangement. This paper describes methodology of weight optimization of blisk using ‘HyperStudy’ tool considering static and dynamic 3D models with ANSYS solver. APDL fatigue life macro is developed for fatigue life prediction, using strain-life approach. In this paper 3D bladed disk, baseline and optimized 3D blisk modal analyses results are used to ensure minimum interferences for engine operating conditions. The developed methodology for optimization can be appreciated by significant weight reduction (30%), while meeting design criteria and increased fatigue life.

2022 ◽  
Mohamed Y. Ibrahim ◽  
Abdelmoneim S. Elshennawy ◽  
Arsany Talaat Saber Wassef ◽  
Ayman Salah ◽  
Ahmed M. Hassan ◽  

Abstract Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the most effective bariatric procedures. The study aimed to explore the value of lengthening the biliopancreatic limb (BPL) in RYGB compared to the outcome of one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). Methods This prospective study included morbidly obese patients divided into two groups. The RYGB group (n = 36) was subjected to long biliary limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LPRYGB), and the OAGB Group (n = 36) had one anastomosis gastric bypass. During follow-up, weight, BMI, percentage of excess body weight loss (%EBWL), resolution of obesity-related comorbidities, and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated. Results There was no significant difference in weight and BMI after 3 and 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, weight loss was significantly higher in the OAGB group. After 12 months, the two groups showed significant improvement of comorbid conditions without significant difference between the two groups. The Qol was significantly higher in the LPRYGB group 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery compared to the OAGB group. Conclusions Extending the BPL length in RYGB to 150 cm is as effective as OAGB in remission of comorbidities, including diabetes. It was also equally effective in weight reduction in the short term. OAGB was more efficient in weight reduction and a significantly faster operation. LPRYGB showed a better QoL of life 1 year after surgery. Graphical abstract

G.S. Aparna ◽  
P.R. Geetha Lekshmi ◽  
C. Mini

Background: Bilimbi is a profusely bearing tree and majority of fruits produced are wasted due to lack of proper preservation methods. Osmo-dehydration studies on quality attributes of bilimbi (Averroha bilimbi) was conducted with the objective to standardize the process variables for osmodehydrated bilimbi and to assess the retention of bioactive compounds. Methods: Harvested mature bilimbi fruits of uniform size were washed, surface dried, pricked and blanched in hot water for one minute. Blanched fruits were subjected to osmotic treatment, with sucrose solution of 40, 60 and 80°B for 60, 120 and 180 minutes. The osmodehydrated bilimbi fruits were analyzed for mass transfer, biochemical and sensory qualities. Best treatments were stored for four months in the room temperature. Result: Mass transfer characters viz., solid gain, water loss, percentage weight reduction, yield and biochemical parameters such as reducing sugar and total sugar increased with increase in osmotic concentration and immersion time whereas free acids, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity were decreased. The osmotic treatment of 80°B for 180 minutes recorded the highest value for solid gain (5.10%), water loss (16.72%), weight reduction (22.57%), ratio of water loss to solid gain (3.25%) and yield (21.13%) which exhibited superior sensory scores for taste (8.43), flavor (8.27), texture (8.46) and overall acceptability (8.43). The best three treatments selected based on sensory analysis were subjected to storage stability studies under room temperature. Osmodehydrated bilimbi obtained highest sensory score at the end of storage.

Obesity Facts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Dughyun Choi ◽  
Sewon Kim ◽  
Jeyoung Woo ◽  
Haekyung Lee ◽  
Hyongane Kim ◽  

Introduction: Various kidney diseases reportedly show different urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) RNA profiles. Although obesity is one of the main causes of chronic kidney disease, the expression pattern of urinary EVs RNA in obesity is uncertain. Our aim was to sequence the small RNA profiles of urinary EVs in obese patients before and after weight reduction and compared them to those of healthy volunteers (HVs). Methods: We recruited age-sex matched obese patients and HVs. The small RNA profiles of urinary EVs were analyzed using RNA sequencing. To evaluate the effect of weight reduction, small RNA profiles of urinary EVs 6 months after bariatric surgery were also analyzed. Results: The proportion of urinary EVs transfer RNA and microRNA of obese patients differed from that of HVs. Obese patients showed differential expression of 1343 small RNAs in urinary EVs compared to HVs (|fold change| ≥ 2 and p value < 0.05). Among those, 61 small RNAs were upregulated in obese patients and downregulated after weight reduction, whereas 167 small RNAs were downregulated in obese patients and upregulated after weight reduction. RNA sequencing revealed the correlation between the specific urinary EVs small RNAs and clinical parameters including body weight, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria. Conclusion: Obese patients showed distinct urinary EVs small RNA profiles compared to HVs. Weight reduction altered urinary EVs small RNA profiles in obese patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Matthew F. Smout ◽  
Gian Mauro Manzoni ◽  
Sofia Tamini ◽  
Nicoletta Marazzi ◽  
Alessandra De Col ◽  

Abstract Background Fatigue is a frequent complaint amongst children and adolescents with obesity, and it interferes with adherence to dietary and exercise regimes that could reduce obesity. The present study evaluated the effect of an inpatient 3-week body weight reduction program on body weight and fatigue. Method One hundred children and adolescents with obesity (64% female; aged 11–18 years) undertook an inpatient program of personalized diet, daily exercise, education, and counselling. Results The sample evidenced a mean reduction in body mass (females: ΔM = 4.3 (sd = 2.1) kg, p < .001), males: ΔM = 6.2 (sd = 2.6) kg, p < .001), BMI standard deviation score (females: ΔM = 0.17 (sd = 0.07), males: ΔM = 0.24 (sd = 0.08), p < .001) and fatigue (females: ΔM = 7.8 (sd = 9.7), males: ΔM = 5.0 (sd = 6.9), p < .001) as measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (PedsQL-MFS) and improvements on the Attention problems subscale of the Youth Self Report (total sample: ΔM = 0.89 (sd = 2.44), p < .001). Reliable change analyses revealed fatigue changes were achieved by up to 34% females and 17% males, but the majority did not achieve reliable change and changes in fatigue were not correlated with changes in body mass. Conclusions The program achieved clinically significant improvements in some children and adolescents. Future studies should explore predictors of treatment responsiveness. Trial registration Observational study. Not registered.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Rasmus Møller Jørgensen ◽  
Bjarke Bøttger ◽  
Esben Thyssen Vestergaard ◽  
Britta Kremke ◽  
Rikke Frederiksen Bahnsen ◽  

Introduction: Childhood obesity is an increasing condition associated with continuous obesity into adulthood and development of comorbidities. Adult studies show an association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and body mass index (BMI). The aim of this retro perspective exploratory study was to investigate SUA in obese children and adolescents and the effects of a subsequent weight reduction.Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy-one children (age 4–18), with obesity (i.e. BMI-SDS of +2 or higher) were included in a multifactorial lifestyle intervention. The children participating were annually measured for anthropometrics, blood samples and DEXA-scans for up to 3 years. Eighty-nine children were included for follow-up analysis.Results: After a follow-up of 20.7 ± 9.4 months a reduction in BMI-SDS of −0.34 ± 0.53 (p &lt; 0.01) was observed. SUA was found to be positively associated with changes in BMI-SDS. SUA levels decreased in the 65 children who lost weight during the trial, conversely, SUA increased in the 23 children who gained weight during the trial (p &lt; 0.01 between groups).Conclusion: SUA was found to correlate with measures of obesity and for the first time, this intervention demonstrates a positive relationship between SUA and weight reduction in children with obesity.

2022 ◽  
health not provided

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2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (12) ◽  
pp. 34-40
Thu Ha Tran ◽  
Thi My Ngoc Trinh ◽  
Duy Trinh Nguyen ◽  
Van Giang Nguyen ◽  

The study aims to investigate the optimal packaging material to maximise the restriction of physiological and biochemical changes which reduce oyster mushroom (Pleurotus saijo caju) quality during the storage after harvesting. There are six packaging techniques tested, including PET box, PET box with kraft paper, PET box with kraft covered by GreenMAP bag, soft tray covered GreenMAP bag, soft tray with kraft paper in GreenMAP bag, and kraft paper. The result shows that the PET box with kraft paper in the GreenMAP bag is the most suitable for the storage of oyster mushrooms. After 10 days under 4oC, the lowest weight reduction can be seen with only 5.78%, soluble protein declines 65.49%, and decrease of vitamin C with 27.87 mg/100 g. In addition, the fruit body can maintain the colour, structure, and taste better than those packed with other materials

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