Effect of geotextile ageing and geomembrane surface roughness on the geomembrane-geotextile interfaces for heap leaching applications

F.B. Abdelaal ◽  
R. Solanki
I. H. Musselman ◽  
R.-T. Chen ◽  
P. E. Russell

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to characterize the surface roughness of nonlinear optical (NLO) polymers. A review of STM of polymer surfaces is included in this volume. The NLO polymers are instrumental in the development of electrooptical waveguide devices, the most fundamental of which is the modulator. The most common modulator design is the Mach Zehnder interferometer, in which the input light is split into two legs and then recombined into a common output within the two dimensional waveguide. A π phase retardation, resulting in total light extinction at the output of the interferometer, can be achieved by changing the refractive index of one leg with respect to the other using the electrooptic effect. For best device performance, it is essential that the NLO polymer exhibit minimal surface roughness in order to reduce light scattering. Scanning tunneling microscopy, with its high lateral and vertical resolution, is capable of quantifying the NLO polymer surface roughness induced by processing. Results are presented below in which STM was used to measure the surface roughness of films produced by spin-coating NLO-active polymers onto silicon substrates.

H. Kinney ◽  
M.L. Occelli ◽  
S.A.C. Gould

For this study we have used a contact mode atomic force microscope (AFM) to study to topography of fluidized cracking catalysts (FCC), before and after contamination with 5% vanadium. We selected the AFM because of its ability to well characterize the surface roughness of materials down to the atomic level. It is believed that the cracking in the FCCs occurs mainly on the catalysts top 10-15 μm suggesting that the surface corrugation could play a key role in the FCCs microactivity properties. To test this hypothesis, we chose vanadium as a contaminate because this metal is capable of irreversibly destroying the FCC crystallinity as well as it microporous structure. In addition, we wanted to examine the extent to which steaming affects the vanadium contaminated FCC. Using the AFM, we measured the surface roughness of FCCs, before and after contamination and after steaming.We obtained our FCC (GRZ-1) from Davison. The FCC is generated so that it contains and estimated 35% rare earth exchaged zeolite Y, 50% kaolin and 15% binder.

Amritpal Singh ◽  
Rakesh Kumar

In the present study, Experimental investigation of the effects of various cutting parameters on the response parameters in the hard turning of EN36 steel under the dry cutting condition is done. The input control parameters selected for the present work was the cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. The objective of the present work is to minimize the surface roughness to obtain better surface finish and maximization of material removal rate for better productivity. The design of experiments was done with the help of Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to find out the significance of the input parameters on the response parameters. Percentage contribution for each control parameter was calculated using ANOVA with 95 % confidence value. From results, it was observed that feed is the most significant factor for surface roughness and the depth of cut is the most significant control parameter for Material removal rate.

2018 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 125-135
Sattar H A Alfatlawi

One of ways to improve properties of materials without changing the product shape toobtain the desired engineering applications is heating and cooling under effect of controlledsequence of heat treatment. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect ofheating and cooling on the surface roughness, microstructure and some selected propertiessuch as the hardness and impact strength of Medium Carbon Steel which treated at differenttypes of heat treatment processes. Heat treatment achieved in this work was respectively,heating, quenching and tempering. The specimens were heated to 850°C and left for 45minutes inside the furnace as a holding time at that temperature, then quenching process wasperformed in four types of quenching media (still air, cold water (2°C), oil and polymersolution), respectively. Thereafter, the samples were tempered at 200°C, 400°C, and 600°Cwith one hour as a soaking time for each temperature, then were all cooled by still air. Whenthe heat treatment process was completed, the surface roughness, hardness, impact strengthand microstructure tests were performed. The results showed a change and clearimprovement of surface roughness, mechanical properties and microstructure afterquenching was achieved, as well as the change that took place due to the increasingtoughness and ductility by reducing of brittleness of samples.

TAPPI Journal ◽  
2010 ◽  
Vol 9 (5) ◽  
pp. 29-35 ◽  

Blocking is undesired adhesion between two surfaces when subjected to pressure and temperature constraints. Blocking between two coated paperboards in contact with each other may be caused by inter-diffusion, adsorption, or electrostatic forces occurring between the respective coating surfaces. These interactions are influenced by factors such as the temperature, pressure, surface roughness, and surface energy. Blocking potentially can be reduced by adjusting these factors, or by using antiblocking additives such as talc, amorphous silica, fatty acid amides, or polymeric waxes. We developed a method of quantifying blocking using a rheometer. Coated surfaces were put in contact with each other with controlled pressure and temperature for a definite period. We then measured the work necessary to pull the two surfaces apart. This was a reproducible way to accurately quantify blocking. The method was applied to determine the effect external factors have on the blocking tendency of coated paperboards, i.e., antiblocking additive concentration, film thickness, temperature, and humidity.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document