The constituents of the volatile oil of air-dried aerial parts of Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae) plants wildly growing in Northwest Iran were analysed by GC/MS. 46 components were identified, comprising 96.6% of the essential oil. Monoterpenes (78.9%) were the main class of the identified components followed by a minor proportion of sesqui-<br />terpenes (11%). Oxygenated monoterpenes (75.3%) were the major subclass of volatile oil components with menthone (38.7%), menthol (11.3%), neomenthol (10.5%), and pulegone (6.8%) as major compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (10.6%) were the highlighted subclass of 15 carbons sesquiterpenoidal compounds with (E)-caryophyllene (4.9%) and β-cubebene (2.5%) as their principle representatives. Furthermore, menthyl acetate (C<sub>12</sub> acetylated monoterpene derived compound) was contained considerable amounts (5.2%) in the essential oil. In total, volatile oil composition of M. pulegium L. plants studied in the present experiment was characterised as a new menthone type with appreciable amounts of menthol and neomenthol, and it could be used as a potential source of these high value monoterpenes in pharmaceutical and food industries.
The chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Mentha pulegium L. (Linné) collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components were pulegone (50.6%), piperitenone (27.8%) and menthone (6.9%). Comparison of this oil with other studied oils of different populations is discussed. The oil showed good antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms that infest historical art works.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) extracts obtained from the aerial parts of plants harvested at five growth stages. In vitro assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity, i.e., ABTS•+ and DPPH• scavenging activity, the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the ability to inhibit β-carotene–linoleic acid emulsion oxidation. Phenolic compounds, such as mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers and caffeic acid hexose, were identified using the LC–TOF–MS/MS technique. The predominant compound during the growth cycle of the plant was 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, whose content was the highest at the mid-flowering stage. The total phenolic content was also the highest in sunflowers at the mid-flowering stage. The main phenolic compound contents were closely correlated with ABTS•+ and DPPH• scavenging activity and FRAP. No significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity in the emulsion system. The highest antiradical activity and FRAP were generally determined in older plants (mid-flowering and late flowering stages). In conclusion, the aerial parts of sunflowers, in particular those harvested at the mid-flowering stage, are a good plant material from which to obtain phenolic compound extracts, albeit mainly of one class (esters of caffeic acid and quinic acid), with high antioxidant activity.
Aerial parts of Mentha pulegium L. collected from south east of Algeria (Reguiba, El-Oued) possessed an essential oil in 2.34% (v/w) yield. GC and GC-MS analysis of the oil revealed recognition of Thirty-seven compounds, representing 95.02% (area percent) of the total oil composition. Oil was rich in Oxygenated hydrocarbons, exhibited higher percentage of Pulegone (46.31%) followed by Piperitenone (23.3%), Menthone (6.2%) and Limonene (4.7%). The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging bioassay (IC50 = 157 µl/ml).
Persicaria maculosa (Polygonaceae) (known as lady’s thumb) is an annual morphologically variable weed that is widely distributed in Chile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifeedant potential of methanolic (MeOH), ethanolic (EtOH), and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from the aerial parts of this plant collected in the Valparaíso and Curicó provinces (Chile) and relate this activity to the antioxidant capacity and the presence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. A phenolic profile based on HPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed the identification of 26 phenolic compounds, most of them glycosyl derivatives of isorhamnetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. In addition, the total phenolic content (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion scavenging (O2−), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) of the extracts are reported. The antifeedant potentials of the plant extracts were tested against Epilachna paenulata, Pseudaletia adultera, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and Diaphorina citri insects for the first time. The activity against the aphid M. euphorbiae was significant for the DCM extracts of plants from Valparaíso and Curicó (settling % = 23% ± 4% and 23% ± 5%, respectively). The antifeedant activities against the beetle E. paenulata and the lepidoptera P. adultera were significant for Valparaíso extracts, especially when tested against E. Paenulata (IFP = 1.0 ± 0.0). Finally, the MeOH and EtOH extracts from Valparaíso plants reduced the diet consumption of the psilid D. citri (p < 0.05). The results showed that P. maculosa is a good source of flavonoids with some antioxidant capacities and has potential interest as botanical eco-friendly alternative with deterrent activity.
Ruta tuberculata forssk. (Rutaceae) is an aromatic plants widely used in Algerian traditionally medicine due to its pharmaceutical virtues against various disorders. This study aims to determine the phenolic profile of aqueous (RAE) and methanol (RME) extracts of R. tuberculata aerial parts and to investigate their acute oral toxicity, as well as their possible antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effects.
Polyphenols were identified by quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. Oral acute toxicity was performed according to OCDE guidelines. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and supported by biochemical and histological analysis of liver and kidneys. The antiproliferative activity against human colorectal HT-29 and ovarian OV2008 cancer cell lines was determined using SRB assay.
LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that RME has higher phenols and flavonoids content than RAE, however, it’s major identified flavonoids namely Kaempferol, rutin and naringenin. R. tuberculata seems mildly toxic at several doses, with oral LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg. the significant increase in hepatic markers enzymes activities as well as cholesterol, triglycerides and glycemia levels, caused by PCM-administration, was potentially reduced following the co-treatments with vitamin C and RME, respectively, compared to RAE. Moreover, RME-treatment markedly prevented all histological changes. Compared to RAE, RME (100 μg/mL) exhibited excellent antiproliferative activity against both tested cancer lines (% inhibition ≥ 80 %).
Both R. tuberculata extracts (200 mg/kg/daily) were non-toxic and exerted a potential hepatoprotective effect against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity. Accordingly, RME may be considered a good candidate for the development of new therapies against colorectal and ovarian cancers.