scholarly journals Gut Microbiota Provides a New Mechanism for Explaining Agrochemical-Induced Synergistic Effects on Bee Mortality

Yueyue Liu ◽  
Chen Wang ◽  
Suzhen Qi ◽  
Fengchang Wu
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sudeep Ghimire ◽  
Supapit Wongkuna ◽  
Ranjini Sankaranarayanan ◽  
Elizabeth P. Ryan ◽  
G. Jayarama Bhat ◽  

Dietary fiber and flavonoids have substantial influence on the human gut microbiota composition that significantly impact health. Recent studies with dietary supplements such as quercetin and rice bran have shown beneficial impacts on the host alongside a positive influence of the gut microbiota. The specific bacterial species impacted by quercetin or rice bran in the diet is not well understood. In this study, we used a minibioreactor array system as a model to determine the effect of quercetin and rice bran individually, as well as in combination, on gut microbiota without the confounding host factors. We found that rice bran exerts higher shift in gut microbiome composition when compared to quercetin. At the species level, Acidaminococcus intestini was the only significantly enriched taxa when quercetin was supplemented, while 15 species were enriched in rice bran supplementation and 13 were enriched when quercetin and rice bran were supplemented in combination. When comparing the short chain fatty acid production, quercetin supplementation increased isobutyrate production while propionate dominated the quercetin and rice bran combined group. Higher levels of propionate were highly correlated to the lower abundance of the potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae family. These findings suggest that the combination of quercetin and rice bran serve to enrich beneficial bacteria and reduce potential opportunistic pathogens. In vivo studies are necessary to determine how this synergy of quercetin and rice bran on microbiota impact host health.

2018 ◽  
Vol 32 (S1) ◽  
Melanie Suzanne Trudeau ◽  
David C. Wright ◽  
Sarah K. Trottier ◽  
Yegor Korchemagin ◽  
Raylene A. Reimer ◽  

2020 ◽  
Jinu Medhi ◽  
Mohan Chandra Kalita

Nuts are a combination of prebiotic fiber and phytonutrients and have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects. According to 2005 “My Pyramid” it has been grouped with the meat and bean group. Bioactive compounds of nuts such as resveratrol, phytosterols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and carotenoids display synergistic effects on preventing many age related pathologies. Resveratrol has been reported to extend the lifespan in model organisms such as yeast, Drosophila and mouse. Reports propose nuts as the best substitute for red meat to reduce mortality risk. Macadamia nuts with a rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) imparts cholesterol lowering effects thereby preventing coronary artery disease. Anacardic acid, a phenolic lipid found in cashew nut shells, is specifically enriched in metastatic melanoma patients in response to immunotherapy. The non-bio-accessible materials of nuts serve as a substrate for human gut microbiota. Regular Walnut enriched diet improves lipid content and enhances probiotic and butyrate producing bacteria composition in healthy individuals. This also reduces cardiovascular risk factors by promoting beneficial bacteria. Gut microbiota diversity studies report an enrichment with genera capable of producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) following consumption of nuts. The prebiotic effect of nuts can be partly from refining butyrate producing bacteria composition. Hence an optimized diet rich with nuts can be an intervention for promoting a healthy microbiota population and thereby improving overall physiology.

W.W. Adams ◽  
S. J. Krause

Rigid-rod polymers such as PBO, poly(paraphenylene benzobisoxazole), Figure 1a, are now in commercial development for use as high-performance fibers and for reinforcement at the molecular level in molecular composites. Spinning of liquid crystalline polyphosphoric acid solutions of PBO, followed by washing, drying, and tension heat treatment produces fibers which have the following properties: density of 1.59 g/cm3; tensile strength of 820 kpsi; tensile modulus of 52 Mpsi; compressive strength of 50 kpsi; they are electrically insulating; they do not absorb moisture; and they are insensitive to radiation, including ultraviolet. Since the chain modulus of PBO is estimated to be 730 GPa, the high stiffness also affords the opportunity to reinforce a flexible coil polymer at the molecular level, in analogy to a chopped fiber reinforced composite. The objectives of the molecular composite concept are to eliminate the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the fiber and the matrix, as occurs in conventional composites, to eliminate the interface between the fiber and the matrix, and, hopefully, to obtain synergistic effects from the exceptional stiffness of the rigid-rod molecule. These expectations have been confirmed in the case of blending rigid-rod PBZT, poly(paraphenylene benzobisthiazole), Figure 1b, with stiff-chain ABPBI, poly 2,5(6) benzimidazole, Fig. 1c A film with 30% PBZT/70% ABPBI had tensile strength 190 kpsi and tensile modulus of 13 Mpsi when solution spun from a 3% methane sulfonic acid solution into a film. The modulus, as predicted by rule of mixtures, for a film with this composition and with planar isotropic orientation, should be 16 Mpsi. The experimental value is 80% of the theoretical value indicating that the concept of a molecular composite is valid.

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