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2022 ◽  
pp. 153537022110669
Hassan Ahmed ◽  
Urooj Amin ◽  
Xiaolun Sun ◽  
Demetrius R Pitts ◽  
Yunbo Li ◽  

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, can trigger septic shock, a severe form of inflammation-mediated sepsis with a very high mortality rate. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this endotoxin remain to be defined and detoxification of LPS is yet to be established. Macrophages, a type of immune cells, initiate a key response responsible for the cascade of events leading to the surge in inflammatory cytokines and immunopathology of septic shock. This study was undertaken to determine whether the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophage cells could be ameliorated via CDDO-IM (2-cyano-3,12 dioxooleana-1,9 dien-28-oyl imidazoline), a novel triterpenoid compound. Data from this study show that gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were considerably increased by treatment with LPS in macrophages differentiated from ML-1 monocytes. Interestingly, LPS-induced increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels is reduced by CDDO-IM. In addition, endogenous upregulation of a series of antioxidant molecules by CDDO-IM provided protection against LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. LPS-mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity was also noted to decrease upon treatment with CDDO-IM in macrophages suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signaling. This study would contribute to improve our understanding of the detoxification of endotoxin LPS by the triterpenoid CDDO-IM.

Taeheon Lee ◽  
Chae-Bin Na ◽  
Dasom Kim ◽  
Hae Jung Han ◽  
Jongbok Yun ◽  

Abstract. Objectives: To determine whether SNPs of osteoarthritis (OA)-related genes predict the effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZ) extract in OA patients with OA. Subjects/methods: To analyze correlations between CZ extract effects in humans and their genotypes, 121 Korean patients with OA were recruited. Patients ingested 600 mg/day of the CZ extract GCWB106 (one tablet daily), including 250-mg CZ, or placebo (one tablet daily) for 12 weeks. Twenty SNPs were genotyped in 11 genes associated with OA pathogenesis, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and 9 genes involved in OA-related dietary intervention. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (K-WOMAC) were measured as indicators of GCWB106 effect. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal-Wallis tests to identify associations between these scales and genotyped loci in patients with OA. Results: Three SNPs ( PPARG rs3856806, MMP13 rs2252070, and ZIP2 rs2234632) were significantly associated with the degree of change in VAS pain score. Homozygous CC genotype carriers of rs3856806, G allele carriers (GA or GG) of rs2252070, and T allele carriers (GT or TT) of rs2234632 showed lower VAS score (i.e., less severe symptoms) in the GCWB106 group (n=53) than the placebo group (n=57) (p=0.026, p=0.009, and p=0.025, respectively). Gene–gene interaction effects on GCWB106-mediated pain relief were then examined, and it was found that the addition of each genotype resulted in a greater decrease in VAS pain score in the GCWB106 group (p=0.0024) but not the placebo group (p=0.7734). Conclusions: These novel predictive markers for the pain-relieving effects of GCWB106 may be used in the personalized treatment of patients with OA.

2022 ◽  
Shirley D Wenker ◽  
Victoria Gradaschi ◽  
Carina Ferrari ◽  
Maria Isabel Farias ◽  
Corina Garcia ◽  

Parkinson's Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta . Even though successful transplantation of dopamine-producing cells into the striatum exhibits favourable effects in animal models and clinical trials; transplanted cell survival is low. Since every transplant elicits an inflammatory response which can affect cell survival and differentiation, we aimed to study in vivo and in vitro the impact of the pro-inflammatory environment on human dopaminergic precursors. We first observed that transplanted human dopaminergic precursors into the striatum of immunosuppressed rats elicited an early and sustained activation of astroglial and microglial cells after 15 days post-transplant. This long-lasting response was associated with Tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in microglial cells. In vitro conditioned media from activated BV2 microglial cells increased cell death, decreased Tyrosine hydroxylase -positive cells and induced morphological alterations on human neural stem cells-derived dopaminergic precursors at two differentiation stages: 19 days and 28 days. Those effects were ameliorated by inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor alpha, a cytokine which was previously detected in vivo and in conditioned media from activated BV-2 cells. Our results suggest that a pro-inflammatory environment is sustained after transplantation under immunosuppression, providing a window of opportunity to modify this response to increase transplant survival and differentiation. In addition, our data show that the microglia-derived pro-inflammatory microenvironment has a negative impact on survival and differentiation of dopaminergic precursors. Finally, Tumor necrosis factor alpha plays a key role in these effects, suggesting that this cytokine could be an interesting target to increase the efficacy of human dopaminergic precursors transplantation in Parkinson's Disease.

Georgia Rodrigues Esteves ◽  
Ivaldo Esteves Junior ◽  
Igor Fagioli Bordello Masson ◽  
Aline Fernanda Perez Machado ◽  
Maria Carolina Derencio Oliveira ◽  

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 138
Marina Liso ◽  
Annamaria Sila ◽  
Giulio Verna ◽  
Aurelia Scarano ◽  
Rossella Donghia ◽  

Antioxidants are privileged candidates for the development of adjuvants able to improve the efficiency of pharmacological therapies, particularly for chronic inflammatory syndromes. During the last 20 years, anti-TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) monoclonal antibodies infusion has been the biological therapy most frequently administered but there is still large space for improvement in disease remission rates and maintenance. In this context, nutritional bioactive compounds contained in dietary patterns or included as supplements, may act as adjuvants for the induction and maintenance of IBD (inflammatory bowel diseases) remission. To verify this possibility, a single-center preliminary study (SI-CURA, Soluzioni Innovative per la gestione del paziente e il follow up terapeutico della Colite UlceRosA) was designed and carried out to evaluate whether a daily administration of purple corn supplement could improve the response to Infliximab (IFX) infusion of IBD patients with both Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). A cohort of 47 patients was enrolled in the study. Biological samples were collected before the first and the third IFX infusion. All patients received nutritional guidelines, 27 of them received commercial red fruit tea with low anthocyanins content, while 20 received a purple corn supplement with a high anthocyanin content. Results show that the administration of an antioxidant-enriched purple corn supplement could improve IFX-mediated disease remission in terms of circulating inflammatory markers. Comparison between CD and UC patients revealed that, at this anthocyanin dosage, the purple corn extract administration improved the IFX response in CD but not in UC patients. Our results may pave the way for a new metacentric study of CD patients, recruiting a wider cohort and followed-up over a longer observational time.

2022 ◽  
Dalia M Mabrouk ◽  
Aida El makawy ◽  
Kawkab A Ahmed ◽  
Faten M Ibrahim

Abstract Background: Topamax® ® has multiple pharmacological mechanisms that are efficient to treat epilepsy and migraine. Ginger has been demonstrated to have gingerols and shogaols compounds that proven to cross the blood-brain barrier causing migraine relief, implying that it is useful in the treatment of migraines. Moreover, Topamax has many off-label uses. So it was necessary to explore the possible neurotoxicity of Topamax®, Ginger oil and their interaction in the mice brain. Methods and Results: Male mice were orally gavage with Topamax®, ginger oil (400mg/kg), and Topamax® plus ginger oil with the same pattern for one month. Oxidative stress markers, acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), were analyzed in brain tissue. Histopathological examination by hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemical glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Bax expression analysis were done. The mRNA levels of GABAAR subunits, Gabra1, Gabra3, and Gabra5 were evaluated by RT qPCR. The analysis of data revealed that Topamax® elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers, neurotransmitters, TNF-α, and diminished the level of glutathione reduced (GSH). Topamax® exhibited various neuropathological alterations, strong Bax expression, and GFAP immune-reactivity in the cerebral cortex. The interaction effect of Topamax® plus ginger oil attenuated the changes induced by Topamax® in the abovementioned parameters. Both Topamax® and ginger oil upregulated the mRNA expression of gabra1 and gabra3 while their interaction markedly downregulated them. Conclusion: We can conclude that the Topamax® overdose could possibly cause neurotoxicity, but the interaction with ginger oil can reduce Topamax® -induced neurotoxicity and should be taken in parallel.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shiwei Yan ◽  
Jingqi Ruan ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Jiaxu Xu ◽  
Changhao Sun ◽  

Although there has been increasing recognition that famine exposure in the fetal stage damages liver function in adulthood, this deteriorated effect could be extended to the next generation remains vague. This study aimed to explore whether famine exposure was associated with liver function in the two consecutive generations, and its association with the mediation role of inflammatory markers. We analyzed the data of 2,681 participants from Suihua rural area, Heilongjiang Province, China. According to the date of birth, the participants were classified as fetal exposed and nonexposed. The F2 subjects were classified as having no parents exposed to famine, maternal famine exposure, paternal famine exposure, or parental famine exposure. In the mixed-effect models, prenatal exposure to famine was associated with the elevation of Δ aspartate aminotransferase (ΔAST) (β: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.43) and Δ alanine aminotransferase (ΔALT) (β: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.66) levels in F1 adults. The mediation analysis showed that the inflammatory markers including serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) might mediate the famine-liver function association. This longitudinal data were consistent with the hypothesis that the inflammatory markers explained part of the influence of prenatal famine exposure on liver function injury, and the natal mechanism was needed to be elucidated in the future study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 205521732110707
Shin Yee Chey ◽  
Allan G. Kermode

Background An association between tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors exposure and central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorders has been postulated but is poorly understood. Objectives Describe the clinical spectrum and progress of a cohort of patients who developed demyelinating disorder following exposure to TNF-α inhibitor. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients who presented to a single neurologist in Western Australia between May 2003 and July 2020. Results 7 patients (6 females and 1 male) were identified. Mean age was 49.1 years. Mean follow-up time was 2.9 years. Mean interval between commencement of TNF-α inhibitor and onset of demyelinating event was 3 years. The spectrum of demyelinating events included transverse myelitis ( N = 3), acute brainstem syndrome ( N = 1) and optic neuritis ( N = 1). 2 patients had an atypical presentation but had MRI findings which unequivocally showed demyelinating changes. 2 patients had a monophasic event while the other 5 patients were diagnosed to have multiple sclerosis. All symptomatic patients with multiple sclerosis were started on disease modifying therapy and remained relapse free during follow-up. Conclusion Exposure to TNF-α inhibitor appears to increase the risk of demyelinating event. Whether TNFα inhibition directly results in CNS demyelination or trigger demyelination in susceptible individuals requires further research.

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