human gut
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2022 ◽  
Vol 378 ◽  
pp. 132136
María Ruiz-Rico ◽  
Simone Renwick ◽  
Emma Allen-Vercoe ◽  
José M. Barat

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 ◽  
pp. 81-87
Francesca Turroni ◽  
Christian Milani ◽  
Marco Ventura ◽  
Douwe van Sinderen

2022 ◽  
Zhongzhi Sun ◽  
Wenju Wang ◽  
Leyuan Li ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Zhibin Ning ◽  

The gut microbiome composition and function are associated with health and diseases. Sweeten-ers are widely used food additives, although many studies using animal models have linked sweetener consumption to gut microbial changes and health issues. Whether sweeteners directly change the human gut microbiome functionality remains largely unknown. In this study, we sys-tematically investigated the responses of five human gut microbiomes to 21 common sweeteners, using an approach combining high-throughput ex vivo microbiome culturing and metaproteomics to quantify functional changes in different taxa. Hierarchical clustering based on metaproteomic responses of individual microbiomes resulted in two clusters. The first cluster was composed of non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) and two sugar alcohols with shorter carbon backbones (4-5 carbon atoms), and the second cluster was composed of sugar alcohols with longer carbon backbones. The metaproteomic functional responses of the second cluster were similar to the prebiotic fructooligosaccharides and kestose, indicating that these sugar alcohol-type sweeteners have potential prebiotic functions. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the direct effects of commonly used sweeteners on the functions of the human gut microbiome using a func-tional metaproteomics approach, improving our understanding of the roles of sweeteners on mi-crobiome-associated human health and disease issues.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 234
Manman Liu ◽  
Qingqing Chen ◽  
Yalian Sun ◽  
Lingzhou Zeng ◽  
Hongchen Wu ◽  

Folate is a B-vitamin required for DNA synthesis, methylation, and cellular division, whose deficiencies are associated with various disorders and diseases. Currently, most folic acid used for fortification is synthesized chemically, causing undesirable side effects. However, using folate-producing probiotics is a viable option, which fortify folate in situ and regulate intestinal microbiota. In this study, the folate production potential of newly isolated strains from raw milk was analyzed by microbiological assay. Latilactobacillus sakei LZ217 showed the highest folate production in Folic Acid Assay Broth, 239.70 ± 0.03 ng/μL. The folate produced by LZ217 was identified as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. LZ217 was tolerant to environmental stresses (temperature, pH, NaCl, and ethanol), and was resistant to gastrointestinal juices. Additionally, the in vitro effects of LZ217 on human gut microbiota were investigated by fecal slurry cultures. 16S rDNA gene sequencing indicated that fermented samples containing LZ217 significantly increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus 2, Butyricicoccus compared to not containing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analysis revealed that LZ217 also increased the production of butyric acid by fermentation. Together, L. sakei LZ217 could be considered as a probiotic candidate to fortify folate and regulate intestinal microecology.

Zheng Sun ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
Min Li ◽  
Yogendra Bhaskar ◽  
Jinshan Zhao ◽  

Systemic and chronic diseases are important health problems today and have been proven to be strongly associated with dysbiotic gut microbiome. Studying the association between the gut microbiome and sub-optimal health status of humans in extreme environments (such as ocean voyages) will give us a better understanding of the interactions between observable health signs and a stable versus dysbiotic gut microbiome states.

Gut ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. gutjnl-2021-326298
Menglei Shuai ◽  
Yuanqing Fu ◽  
Hai-li Zhong ◽  
Wanglong Gou ◽  
Zengliang Jiang ◽  

ObjectiveThe human gut fungal community, known as the mycobiome, plays a fundamental role in the gut ecosystem and health. Here we aimed to investigate the determinants and long-term stability of gut mycobiome among middle-aged and elderly adults. We further explored the interplay between gut fungi and bacteria on metabolic health.DesignThe present study included 1244 participants from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study. We characterised the long-term stability and determinants of the human gut mycobiome, especially long-term habitual dietary consumption. The comprehensive multiomics analyses were performed to investigate the ecological links between gut bacteria, fungi and faecal metabolome. Finally, we examined whether the interaction between gut bacteria and fungi could modulate the metabolic risk.ResultsThe gut fungal composition was temporally stable and mainly determined by age, long-term habitual diet and host physiological states. Specifically, compared with middle-aged individuals, Blastobotrys and Agaricomycetes spp were depleted, while Malassezia was enriched in the elderly. Dairy consumption was positively associated with Saccharomyces but inversely associated with Candida. Notably, Saccharomycetales spp interacted with gut bacterial diversity to influence insulin resistance. Bidirectional mediation analyses indicated that bacterial function or faecal histidine might causally mediate an impact of Pichia on blood cholesterol.ConclusionWe depict the sociodemographic and dietary determinants of human gut mycobiome in middle-aged and elderly individuals, and further reveal that the gut mycobiome may be closely associated with the host metabolic health through regulating gut bacterial functions and metabolites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alba Tamargo ◽  
Natalia Molinero ◽  
Julián J. Reinosa ◽  
Victor Alcolea-Rodriguez ◽  
Raquel Portela ◽  

AbstractMicroplastics (MPs) are a widely recognized global problem due to their prevalence in natural environments and the food chain. However, the impact of microplastics on human microbiota and their possible biotransformation in the gastrointestinal tract have not been well reported. To evaluate the potential risks of microplastics at the digestive level, completely passing a single dose of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) through the gastrointestinal tract was simulated by combining a harmonized static model and the dynamic gastrointestinal simgi model, which recreates the different regions of the digestive tract in physiological conditions. PET MPs started several biotransformations in the gastrointestinal tract and, at the colon, appeared to be structurally different from the original particles. We report that the feeding with microplastics alters human microbial colonic community composition and hypothesize that some members of the colonic microbiota could adhere to MPs surface promoting the formation of biofilms. The work presented here indicates that microplastics are indeed capable of digestive-level health effects. Considering this evidence and the increasing exposure to microplastics in consumer foods and beverages, the impact of plastics on the functionality of the gut microbiome and their potential biodegradation through digestion and intestinal bacteria merits critical investigation.

Yeong-Sik Hong ◽  
Dong-Hyun Jung ◽  
Won-Hyong Chung ◽  
Young-Do Nam ◽  
Ye-Jin Kim ◽  

Cynthia Maria Chibani ◽  
Alexander Mahnert ◽  
Guillaume Borrel ◽  
Alexandre Almeida ◽  
Almut Werner ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Wei Yan ◽  
A. Brantley Hall ◽  
Xiaofang Jiang

AbstractAntibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) regulated by invertible promoters can mitigate the fitness cost of maintaining ARGs in the absence of antibiotics and could potentially prolong the persistence of ARGs in bacterial populations. However, the origin, prevalence, and distribution of these ARGs regulated by invertible promoters remains poorly understood. Here, we sought to assess the threat posed by ARGs regulated by invertible promoters by systematically searching for ARGs regulated by invertible promoters in the human gut microbiome and examining their origin, prevalence, and distribution. Through metagenomic assembly of 2227 human gut metagenomes and genomic analysis of the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection, we identified ARGs regulated by invertible promoters and categorized them into three classes based on the invertase-regulating phase variation. In the human gut microbiome, ARGs regulated by invertible promoters are exclusively found in Bacteroidales species. Through genomic analysis, we observed that ARGs regulated by invertible promoters have convergently originated from ARG insertions into glycan-synthesis loci that were regulated by invertible promoters at least three times. Moreover, all three classes of invertible promoters regulating ARGs are located within integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). Therefore, horizontal transfer via ICEs could explain the wide taxonomic distribution of ARGs regulated by invertible promoters. Overall, these findings reveal that glycan-synthesis loci regulated by invertible promoters in Bacteroidales species are an important hotspot for the emergence of clinically-relevant ARGs regulated by invertible promoters.

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