Use of Gas Emulsion in Blasting Project for Clearing in a Copper Mine in Southern Peru

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 157-164
Dr. Christ Barriga P. ◽  
Ing. Mabel Calderón V.

The gasifiable emulsion is a technological and productive response to the need to reduce operating costs in the mining project, among the improvements with respect to ANFO are a higher detonation velocity (VOD), better fragmentation and reduction of nitrous fumes. In the test mining operation, a commercial explosive mixture called "Q "73 (70% emulsion and 30% ANFO) is used, where the ANFO is composed of 97% ammonium nitrate and 3% diesel, and the explosive mixture "Q "82 (80% emulsion and 20% ANFO) is also used, 7 blasting processes were carried out with a diameter of 12.25 in. in a waste area, the most characteristic rocks found in the blasting project in the copper mine in southern Peru are Toba Cristal (TC), Andesite Basaltic Propylitic (BA-PRO), Andesite Basaltic Argillic (BA-ARG). The results obtained show a reduction of the Power Factor by 1.32%, with respect to the commercial mixtures "Q "73 and "Q "82 an optimum increase in the detonation velocity of 9.92% and 0.59% was obtained, also the high-resolution images of the fumes after blasting indicate a low presence of orange fumes taking a great relevance in the mining sector on a large scale, achieving better results in the blasting phase.

2014 ◽  
Vol 67 (3) ◽  
pp. 297-302 ◽  
Salatiel Assis Resende ◽  
Valdir Costa e Silva ◽  
Hernani Mota de Lima

The use of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) results in low cost blasting. Such costs may be further reduced by replacing fuel oil with alternative fuels such as biomass (biodiesel, rice straw, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse) and tires residue. This paper investigates the use of other fuels instead of fuel oil by measuring the detonation velocity (VOD) and verifying the importance of these fuels in an explosive mixture. Except for biodiesel, all the tests conducted for the mixture of ammonium nitrate and alternative fuels showed poor performance when compared with ANFO. The achieved percentage of detonation velocity (VOD) of the mixtures in relation to the ANFO were 55.4% for ammonium nitrate + rice straw, 64.9% for ammonium nitrate + corn cob, 70.1% for ammonium nitrate + sugar cane bagasse, 74.4% for ammonium nitrate + tires residue and 93.7% for ammonium nitrate + biodiesel. This study indicates that the methodology proposed can be applied as a reference for determination and preparation of explosive mixtures of fuel and oxidizing agents since in all the tests conducted the detonation of the charges occurred.

Energies ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 12 (13) ◽  
pp. 2582 ◽  
Samuel Lotsu ◽  
Yuichiro Yoshida ◽  
Katsufumi Fukuda ◽  
Bing He

Confronting an energy crisis, the government of Ghana enacted a power factor correction policy in 1995. The policy imposes a penalty on large-scale electricity users, namely, special load tariff (SLT) customers of the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), whose power factor is below 90%. This paper investigates the impact of this policy on these firms’ power factor improvement by using panel data from 183 SLT customers from 1994 to 1997 and from 2012. To avoid potential endogeneity, this paper adopts a regression discontinuity design (RDD) with the power factor of the firms in the previous year as a running variable, with its cutoff set at the penalty threshold. The result shows that these large-scale electricity users who face the penalty because their power factor falls just short of the threshold are more likely to improve their power factor in the subsequent year, implying that the power factor correction policy implemented by Ghana’s government is effective.

Molecules ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 25 (22) ◽  
pp. 5350
Damiano Archetti ◽  
Neophytos Neophytou

In this work we theoretically explore the effect of dimensionality on the thermoelectric power factor of indium arsenide (InA) nanowires by coupling atomistic tight-binding calculations to the Linearized Boltzmann transport formalism. We consider nanowires with diameters from 40 nm (bulk-like) down to 3 nm close to one-dimensional (1D), which allows for the proper exploration of the power factor within a unified large-scale atomistic description across a large diameter range. We find that as the diameter of the nanowires is reduced below d < 10 nm, the Seebeck coefficient increases substantially, as a consequence of strong subband quantization. Under phonon-limited scattering conditions, a considerable improvement of ~6× in the power factor is observed around d = 10 nm. The introduction of surface roughness scattering in the calculation reduces this power factor improvement to ~2×. As the diameter is decreased to d = 3 nm, the power factor is diminished. Our results show that, although low effective mass materials such as InAs can reach low-dimensional behavior at larger diameters and demonstrate significant thermoelectric power factor improvements, surface roughness is also stronger at larger diameters, which takes most of the anticipated power factor advantages away. However, the power factor improvement that can be observed around d = 10 nm could prove to be beneficial as both the Lorenz number and the phonon thermal conductivity are reduced at that diameter. Thus, this work, by using large-scale full-band simulations that span the corresponding length scales, clarifies properly the reasons behind power factor improvements (or degradations) in low-dimensional materials. The elaborate computational method presented can serve as a platform to develop similar schemes for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) material electronic structures.

2015 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 185 ◽  
Charles W. Marwa ◽  
Isabela Warioba

<p>This paper assesses the challenges that are posed to the new mining law and other Regulations that govern the mining sector in Tanzania. The main issues discussed in this paper include the conflicts between the local people and the mining companies regarding land ownership, compensation and forced eviction, conflicts between Small Scale Mining (SSM) and Large Scale Mining (LSM).</p><p>The findings obtained by the authors, intimates that the major problems in the mining sector are due to lack of law enforcement and good governance in the sector as well as lack of awareness of the laws governing the sector by the local communities.</p>Lastly, the authors concludes and recommend that, until and unless the laws are adhered to and kept into practice, the problems in the mining sector will not be easily resolved. Hence in order for the mining sector to benefit the indigenous and the investors, there should be enhancement of sustainable development;, people should be educated on the laws and the effects of mining on the environment and the relationship between SSM and LSM be improved.

1992 ◽  
Vol 212 ◽  
pp. 77-85 ◽  
Jimmie C. Oxiey ◽  
Surender M. Kaushik ◽  
Nancy S. Gilson

2020 ◽  
Vol 37 (4) ◽  
pp. 1339-1347 ◽  
Jinghe Chen ◽  
Shuiping Zhong ◽  
Ding Tang ◽  
Chen Kuang

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (5) ◽  
pp. 6382-6402
Jannyna Reto Gómez ◽  
Carlos Rios-Campos ◽  
Manuel Tiberio Valentín Puma ◽  
Yesenia Paulina Valentín Huanaco ◽  
Juan Alberto Avalos Hubeck ◽  

Objetivo: El siguiente estudio tuvo como objetivo principal describir el impacto económico de la minería en el Perú, desde 1960 hasta la actualidad. Método: El estudio que se ha ejercido es de clase descriptiva y correlacional no experimental, pues se ha recopilado información de distintas fuentes principalmente del MINEM, y distintas fuentes secundarias, lo que incluye también fuentes históricas para conocer la realidad del sector minero a través de las últimas seis décadas. Resultados: Se ha encontrado que los minerales, sobre todo el oro, el cobre y el zinc han sido los minerales más producidos, siendo el hierro el mineral más producido, seguido del cobre y el zinc. Además, que actualmente Latinoamérica, tiene grandes producciones de minerales. Además de que al analizar la empresa Southern Perú, se haya que ha obtenido una ganancia mayor a los US$ 7000 millones por la venta de minerales, cantidad que es mucho mayor a sus costos que no alcanzaban los S/. 3900 millones de soles.  Conclusiones: Se concluye que el impacto económico por parte del sector minero ha sido positivo, pues la aportación que ha tenido este en el PBI sobrepasa el 11% de este.   Objective: The following study had as its main objective to describe the economic impact of mining in Peru during the 1960s to the present. Method: The study that has been carried out is of a descriptive and non-experimental correlational class, since information has been collected from different sources, mainly the MINEM, and different secondary sources, which also includes historical sources to know the reality of the mining sector through the last six decades. Results: It has been found that minerals, especially gold, copper and zinc, have been the most produced minerals, iron being the most produced mineral, followed by copper and zinc. In addition, Latin America currently has large mineral productions. In addition to analyzing the Southern Peru company, it has been obtained a profit greater than US $ 7,000 million from the sale of minerals, an amount that is much higher than its costs that did not reach S /. 3.9 billion soles. Conclusions: It is concluded that the economic impact by the mining sector has been positive, since the contribution that this has had in the GDP exceeds 11% this.

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