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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Silvia Aguilar ◽  
Pippa J. Moore ◽  
Roberto A. Uribe

Abstract The green macroalga Caulerpa filiformis has been spreading on shallow soft sediment habitats along the Peruvian coast, colonizing previously unvegetated sediments to create monospecific meadows. We examined the nature of the impact of C. filiformis meadows on the density, taxonomic richness and assemblage structure of epifaunal and infaunal benthic macroinvertebrates. Specifically, we tested whether the spread of C. filiformis has resulted in different macroinvertebrate assemblages than those formed by the dominant native macroalgae (i.e., Rhodymenia spp.) and unvegetated sediments. Surveys were undertaken in two bays in each of two locations, in central and southern Peru, during winter 2017 and summer 2018. In general, our results show that macroinvertebrate assemblages were similar across all three habitats, although there were some differences, related to location and season, but with no clear patterns observed. Taxonomic richness and density was generally higher in the vegetated habitats than the unvegetated habitat, and where there were differences between the two vegetated habitats there was no consistent pattern of which habitat supported the highest richness or density. Given invading C. filiformis is primarily colonizing unvegetated habitats it would appear that this species is creating a new niche which supports similar assemblages, but higher taxonomic richness and density than unvegetated habitats. While our study suggests that C. filiformis is having a limited ecological impact we recommend that actions be put in place to limit the spread of this invasive species at the same time as increasing monitoring of the ecological impacts of this species as lags in the ecological impacts of invasive species are common.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Simon Bidwell

<p>Theories of Latin American underdevelopment have converged on neostructuralist approaches, which aim to promote more inclusive development through diversified economic activities with links to international markets. These include alternative forms of tourism, which are claimed to provide economic benefits to historically marginalised areas while supporting and enhancing traditional livelihoods. This study aimed to assess these claims by taking a broad political economy approach to evaluating the impact of rural tourism in the Colca Valley of southern Peru. Detailed case studies of two contrasting localities were linked with analysis of the wider economic, political and social context.  Field research in one case study area found that tourism had created opportunities for local families with existing skills and resources and had provided useful additional income for others but had involved only a minority of residents. Loss of control of tourism to the regional metropolis and destructive competition had resulted in diminishing returns and general dissatisfaction with the “disorderly” nature of tourism development. In another case study locality, a more cohesive social context and intensive support from external institutions had allowed the planned development of a rural tourism project that emphasised broad community participation, but the low tourist volumes to date were a constraint on progress. Nevertheless, throughout the Colca Valley tourism had contributed to the revalorization of local culture and identity and provided a platform for local selfassertion. The thesis argues that an appreciation of the wider economic and political context in Peru is crucial to understanding the way tourism has evolved in the case study areas. It suggests that more work to link local, grassroots perspectives with broad structuralist analysis would represent a fruitful research agenda in development studies.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Simon Bidwell

<p>Theories of Latin American underdevelopment have converged on neostructuralist approaches, which aim to promote more inclusive development through diversified economic activities with links to international markets. These include alternative forms of tourism, which are claimed to provide economic benefits to historically marginalised areas while supporting and enhancing traditional livelihoods. This study aimed to assess these claims by taking a broad political economy approach to evaluating the impact of rural tourism in the Colca Valley of southern Peru. Detailed case studies of two contrasting localities were linked with analysis of the wider economic, political and social context.  Field research in one case study area found that tourism had created opportunities for local families with existing skills and resources and had provided useful additional income for others but had involved only a minority of residents. Loss of control of tourism to the regional metropolis and destructive competition had resulted in diminishing returns and general dissatisfaction with the “disorderly” nature of tourism development. In another case study locality, a more cohesive social context and intensive support from external institutions had allowed the planned development of a rural tourism project that emphasised broad community participation, but the low tourist volumes to date were a constraint on progress. Nevertheless, throughout the Colca Valley tourism had contributed to the revalorization of local culture and identity and provided a platform for local selfassertion. The thesis argues that an appreciation of the wider economic and political context in Peru is crucial to understanding the way tourism has evolved in the case study areas. It suggests that more work to link local, grassroots perspectives with broad structuralist analysis would represent a fruitful research agenda in development studies.</p>


Volcanica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (S1) ◽  
pp. 49-71
Author(s):  
Roger Machacca Puma ◽  
José Alberto Del Carpio Calienes ◽  
Marco Antonio Rivera Porras ◽  
Hernando Jhonny Tavera Huarache ◽  
Luisa Diomira Macedo Franco ◽  
...  

Volcano monitoring in Peru is carried out by the Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), through its Centro Vulcanológico Nacional (CENVUL). CENVUL monitors 12 out of 16 volcanoes considered as historically active and potentially active in southern Peru and issues periodic bulletins about the volcanic activity and, depending on the alert-level of each volcano, also issues alerts and warnings of volcanic unrest, ash dispersion, and the occurrence of lahars. The information generated by CENVUL is disseminated to the civil authorities and the public through different information media (newsletters, e-mail, website, social media, mobile app, etc.). The IGP volcanology team was formed after the eruption of Sabancaya volcano in 1988. Since then, geophysical and geological studies, volcanic hazards assessments, and multidisciplinary monitoring realized by the IGP, have provided a comprehensive understanding of volcanic activity in Peru and forecast future eruptive scenarios. Currently, 80% of the historically active and potentially active volcanoes in Peru are equipped with networks of multiparameter instruments, with the seismic monitoring being the most widely implemented. In this report, we present the situation of volcanic monitoring in Peru, the monitoring networks, the techniques employed, as well as efforts to educate and inform the public and officials responsible for disaster risk management.


Volcanica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (S1) ◽  
pp. 73-92
Author(s):  
Rigoberto Aguilar Contreras ◽  
Edu Taipe Maquerhua ◽  
Yanet Antayhua Vera ◽  
Mayra Ortega Gonzales ◽  
Fredy Apaza Choquehuayta ◽  
...  

Urban development in the areas surrounding active volcanoes has led to increasing risks in southern Peru. In order to evaluate the hazard, the Instituto Geológico, Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) created a Volcano Observatory (OVI) to carry out detailed geological investigations to understand eruption histories and provide volcanic hazard maps. The generation of geological information on volcanoes has allowed the identification of scenarios and zoning of potentially impacted areas. This information has also allowed OVI to implement surveillance networks giving priority to the volcanoes that pose the greatest risk to the population, infrastructure, and economic activities. Since 2006, OVI has been running volcanic monitoring networks with a multidisciplinary approach, improving real-time transmission, and making timely forecasts. Based on geological information and the risk posed by the volcanoes, the greatest efforts have been made to monitor Sabancaya, Misti, Ubinas, and Ticsani volcanoes. Following the order of priorities, monitoring of Coropuna, Huaynaputina, Tutupaca and, Yucamane volcanoes has also been developed. In addition, OVI carries out routine education activities and diffusion of information that serve to manage volcanic risk in Peru. El desarrollo urbano en zonas aledañas a volcanes activos ha conllevado a la generación de riesgos cada vez mayores en el sur del Perú. Con la finalidad de evaluar el peligro, el Instituto Geológico, Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) creó un observatorio vulcanológico (OVI) para realizar estudios geológicos detallados que permitan conocer las historias eruptivas y elaborar mapas de peligros volcánicos. La generación de información geológica sobre los volcanes ha permitido la identificación de escenarios y la zonificación de áreas con potencial a ser afectadas. Esta información también ha permitido al OVI implementar sus redes de monitoreo priorizando los volcanes que representan mayor riesgo para la población, la infraestructura y las actividades económicas. Desde el año 2006, el OVI viene implementando redes de vigilancia volcánica con un enfoque multidisciplinario, mejorando la transmisión en tiempo real y realizando pronósticos oportunos. En base a la información geológica y el nivel de riesgo de los volcanes, se han puesto los mayores esfuerzos en monitorear los volcanes Sabancaya, Misti, Ubinas y Ticsani. Siguiendo el orden de prioridades, el OVI ha comenzado, también, el monitoreo de los volcanes Coropuna, Huaynaputina, Tutupaca y Yucamane. Además, el observatorio desarrolla actividades permanentes de educación y difusión de la información que sirven a la gestión del riesgo volcánico en el Perú.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 157-164
Author(s):  
Dr. Christ Barriga P. ◽  
Ing. Mabel Calderón V.

The gasifiable emulsion is a technological and productive response to the need to reduce operating costs in the mining project, among the improvements with respect to ANFO are a higher detonation velocity (VOD), better fragmentation and reduction of nitrous fumes. In the test mining operation, a commercial explosive mixture called "Q "73 (70% emulsion and 30% ANFO) is used, where the ANFO is composed of 97% ammonium nitrate and 3% diesel, and the explosive mixture "Q "82 (80% emulsion and 20% ANFO) is also used, 7 blasting processes were carried out with a diameter of 12.25 in. in a waste area, the most characteristic rocks found in the blasting project in the copper mine in southern Peru are Toba Cristal (TC), Andesite Basaltic Propylitic (BA-PRO), Andesite Basaltic Argillic (BA-ARG). The results obtained show a reduction of the Power Factor by 1.32%, with respect to the commercial mixtures "Q "73 and "Q "82 an optimum increase in the detonation velocity of 9.92% and 0.59% was obtained, also the high-resolution images of the fumes after blasting indicate a low presence of orange fumes taking a great relevance in the mining sector on a large scale, achieving better results in the blasting phase.


The Auk ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel F Lane ◽  
Miguel Angel Aponte Justiniano ◽  
Ryan S Terrill ◽  
Frank E Rheindt ◽  
Luke B Klicka ◽  
...  

Abstract We describe a colorful and distinctive new species of tanager from the lower slopes of the Andes of southeastern Peru and western Bolivia. The species was first noted from southeastern Peru in 2000, but little of its natural history was uncovered until the 2011 discovery of a breeding population in deciduous forest in an intermontane valley, the Machariapo valley, in Bolivia. This species appears to be an intratropical migrant, breeding in deciduous forest during the rainy season (November–March) and spending the dry season dispersed along the lower slopes of the Andes, apparently favoring Guadua bamboo-dominated habitats in both seasons. Phylogenetic evidence suggests this tanager is embedded within a clade of thraupids that includes Ramphocelus, Coryphospingus, Loriotus, Tachyphonus, and related genera in the subfamily Tachyphoninae. Within this subfamily, the new species falls in a clade with two monotypic genera, Eucometis penicillata (Gray-headed Tanager) and Trichothraupis melanops (Black-goggled Tanager). There is strong support for a sister relationship between the new tanager and T. melanops, but because all three species in this clade are highly distinctive phenotypically, we propose erecting a new genus and species name for the new tanager.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1188
Author(s):  
Alberto Collareta ◽  
Olivier Lambert ◽  
Felix G. Marx ◽  
Christian de Muizon ◽  
Rafael Varas-Malca ◽  
...  

The northward-flowing Humboldt Current hosts perpetually high levels of productivity along the western coast of South America. Here, we aim to elucidate the deep-time history of this globally important ecosystem based on a detailed palaeoecological analysis of the exceptionally preserved middle–upper Miocene vertebrate assemblages of the Pisco Formation of the East Pisco Basin, southern Peru. We summarise observations on hundreds of fossil whales, dolphins, seals, seabirds, turtles, crocodiles, sharks, rays, and bony fishes to reconstruct ecological relationships in the wake of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum, and the marked cooling that followed it. The lowermost, middle Miocene Pisco sequence (P0) and its vertebrate assemblage testify to a warm, semi-enclosed, near-shore palaeoenvironment. During the first part of the Tortonian (P1), high productivity within a prominent upwelling system supported a diverse assemblage of mesopredators, at least some of which permanently resided in the Pisco embayment and used it as a nursery or breeding/calving area. Younger portions of the Pisco Formation (P2) reveal a more open setting, with wide-ranging species like rorquals increasingly dominating the vertebrate assemblage, but also local differences reflecting distance from the coast. Like today, these ancient precursors of the modern Humboldt Current Ecosystem were based on sardines, but notably differed from their present-day equivalent in being dominated by extremely large-bodied apex predators like Livyatan melvillei and Carcharocles megalodon.


2022 ◽  
Vol 169 ◽  
pp. 104228
Author(s):  
A. Rodriguez-Sanchez ◽  
A. Tomasek ◽  
S. McMillan ◽  
S. Yufra ◽  
M. Yupanqui ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (5) ◽  
pp. 6382-6402
Author(s):  
Jannyna Reto Gómez ◽  
Carlos Rios-Campos ◽  
Manuel Tiberio Valentín Puma ◽  
Yesenia Paulina Valentín Huanaco ◽  
Juan Alberto Avalos Hubeck ◽  
...  

Objetivo: El siguiente estudio tuvo como objetivo principal describir el impacto económico de la minería en el Perú, desde 1960 hasta la actualidad. Método: El estudio que se ha ejercido es de clase descriptiva y correlacional no experimental, pues se ha recopilado información de distintas fuentes principalmente del MINEM, y distintas fuentes secundarias, lo que incluye también fuentes históricas para conocer la realidad del sector minero a través de las últimas seis décadas. Resultados: Se ha encontrado que los minerales, sobre todo el oro, el cobre y el zinc han sido los minerales más producidos, siendo el hierro el mineral más producido, seguido del cobre y el zinc. Además, que actualmente Latinoamérica, tiene grandes producciones de minerales. Además de que al analizar la empresa Southern Perú, se haya que ha obtenido una ganancia mayor a los US$ 7000 millones por la venta de minerales, cantidad que es mucho mayor a sus costos que no alcanzaban los S/. 3900 millones de soles.  Conclusiones: Se concluye que el impacto económico por parte del sector minero ha sido positivo, pues la aportación que ha tenido este en el PBI sobrepasa el 11% de este.   Objective: The following study had as its main objective to describe the economic impact of mining in Peru during the 1960s to the present. Method: The study that has been carried out is of a descriptive and non-experimental correlational class, since information has been collected from different sources, mainly the MINEM, and different secondary sources, which also includes historical sources to know the reality of the mining sector through the last six decades. Results: It has been found that minerals, especially gold, copper and zinc, have been the most produced minerals, iron being the most produced mineral, followed by copper and zinc. In addition, Latin America currently has large mineral productions. In addition to analyzing the Southern Peru company, it has been obtained a profit greater than US $ 7,000 million from the sale of minerals, an amount that is much higher than its costs that did not reach S /. 3.9 billion soles. Conclusions: It is concluded that the economic impact by the mining sector has been positive, since the contribution that this has had in the GDP exceeds 11% this.


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