scholarly journals Co-Doped Magnesium Oxychloride Composites with Unique Flexural Strength for Construction Use

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 604
Anna-Marie Lauermannová ◽  
Ondřej Jankovský ◽  
Michal Lojka ◽  
Ivana Faltysová ◽  
Julie Slámová ◽  

In this study, the combined effect of graphene oxide (GO) and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OMWCNTs) on material properties of the magnesium oxychloride (MOC) phase 5 was analyzed. The selected carbon-based nanoadditives were used in small content in order to obtain higher values of mechanical parameters and higher water resistance while maintaining acceptable price of the final composites. Two sets of samples containing either 0.1 wt. % or 0.2 wt. % of both nanoadditives were prepared, in addition to a set of reference samples without additives. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, which were used to obtain the basic information on the phase and chemical composition, as well as the microstructure and morphology. Basic macro- and micro-structural parameters were studied in order to determine the effect of the nanoadditives on the open porosity, bulk and specific density. In addition, the mechanical, hygric and thermal parameters of the prepared nano-doped composites were acquired and compared to the reference sample. An enhancement of all the mentioned types of parameters was observed. This can be assigned to the drop in porosity when GO and OMWCNTs were used. This research shows a pathway of increasing the water resistance of MOC-based composites, which is an important step in the development of the new generation of construction materials.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 484
Michal Lojka ◽  
Anna-Marie Lauermannová ◽  
David Sedmidubský ◽  
Milena Pavlíková ◽  
Martina Záleská ◽  

In this contribution, composite materials based on magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) used as an additive were prepared and characterized. The prepared composites contained 0.5 and 1 wt.% of MWCNTs, and these samples were compared with the pure MOC Phase 5 reference. The composites were characterized using a broad spectrum of analytical methods to determine the phase and chemical composition, morphology, and thermal behavior. In addition, the basic structural parameters, pore size distribution, mechanical strength, stiffness, and hygrothermal performance of the composites, aged 14 days, were also the subject of investigation. The MWCNT-doped composites showed high compactness, increased mechanical resistance, stiffness, and water resistance, which is crucial for their application in the construction industry and their future use in the design and development of alternative building products.

2018 ◽  
Vol 8 (10) ◽  
pp. 1925 ◽  
Thiago Oliveira ◽  
Simone Morais

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have provided unprecedented advances in the design of electrochemical sensors. They are composed by sp2 carbon units oriented as multiple concentric tubes of rolled-up graphene, and present remarkable active surface area, chemical inertness, high strength, and low charge-transfer resistance in both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. MWCNT are very versatile and have been boosting the development of a new generation of electrochemical sensors with application in medicine, pharmacology, food industry, forensic chemistry, and environmental fields. This work highlights the most important synthesis methods and relevant electrochemical properties of MWCNT for the construction of electrochemical sensors, and the numerous configurations and successful applications of these devices. Thousands of studies have been attesting to the exceptional electroanalytical performance of these devices, but there are still questions in MWCNT electrochemistry that deserve more investigation, aiming to provide new outlooks and advances in this field. Additionally, MWCNT-based sensors should be further explored for real industrial applications including for on-line quality control.

Materials ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 767 ◽  
Michal Lojka ◽  
Ondřej Jankovský ◽  
Adéla Jiříčková ◽  
Anna-Marie Lauermannová ◽  
Filip Antončík ◽  

In this paper, magnesium oxychloride cement with stoichiometry 3Mg(OH)2∙MgCl2∙8H2O (MOC 3-1-8) was prepared and characterized. The phase composition and kinetics of formation were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis of obtained diffractograms. The chemical composition was analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was also used for the analysis of the prepared sample. In addition, thermal stability was tested using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) combined with mass spectroscopy (MS). The obtained data gave evidence of the fast formation of MOC 3-1-8, which started to precipitate rapidly. As the length of the time of ripening increased, the amount of MgO decreased, while the amount of MOC 3-1-8 increased. The fast formation of the MOC 3-1-8 phase at an ambient temperature is important for its application in the production of low-energy construction materials, which corresponds with the challenges of a sustainable building industry.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 64 ◽  
L. Andrés Guerrero ◽  
Lenys Fernández ◽  
Gema González ◽  
Marjorie Montero-Jiménez ◽  
Rafael Uribe ◽  

A hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor and biosensor based on modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures was designed and evaluated. The construction of the sensor was performed using a glassy carbon (GC) modified electrode with a TiO2–CNT film and Prussian blue (PB) as an electrocalatyzer. The same sensor was also employed as the basis for H2O2 biosensor construction through further modification with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized at the TiO2–fCNT film. Functionalized CNTs (fCNTs) and modified TiO2–fCNTs were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-Ray DifFraction (XRD), confirming the presence of anatase over the fCNTs. Depending on the surface charge, a solvent which optimizes the CNT dispersion was selected: dimethyl formamide (DMF) for fCNTs and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) for TiO2–fCNTs. Calculated values for the electron transfer rate constant (ks) were 0.027 s−1 at the PB–fCNT/GC modified electrode and 4.7 × 10−4 s−1 at the PB–TiO2/fCNT/GC electrode, suggesting that, at the PB–TiO2/fCNT/GC modified electrode, the electronic transfer was improved. According to these results, the PB–fCNT/GC electrode exhibited better Detection Limit (LD) and Quantification Limit (LQ) than the PB–TiO2/fCNT/GC electrode for H2O2. However, the PB film was very unstable at the potentials used. Therefore, the PB–TiO2/fCNT/GC modified electrode was considered the best for H2O2 detection in terms of operability. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) behaviors of the HRP–TiO2/fCNT/GC modified electrodes before and after the chronoamperometric test for H2O2, suggest the high stability of the enzymatic electrode. In comparison with other HRP/fCNT-based electrochemical biosensors previously described in the literature, the HRP–fCNTs/GC modified electrode did not show an electroanalytical response toward H2O2.

2012 ◽  
Vol 65 (11) ◽  
pp. 2010-2015 ◽  
H. Wang ◽  
X. J. Wei ◽  
Z. Y. Bian

Pd/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) catalyst used for the gas-diffusion electrode was prepared by ethylene glycol (EG) reduction and characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that Pd particles with an average size of 8.0 nm were highly dispersed in the MWNTs with amorphous structure. In a diaphragm electrolysis system with a Ti/RuO2/IrO2 anode and the Pd/MWNT gas diffusion cathode, the degradation of 4-chlorophenol was performed by a combination of electrochemical reduction and oxidation. The combined process was in favor of improving 4-chlorophenol degradation efficiency. The optimum reaction conditions were as following: initial pH 7, aeration with hydrogen and air. Under the optimized electrolysis conditions the removal of 4-chlorophenol in the anodic and cathodic compartments were 98.5 and 90.5%, respectively. Additionally, based on the analysis of electrolysis intermediates using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC), the electrolysis degradation of 4-chlorophenol was proposed containing the intermediates, such as phenol, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, maleic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and formic acid.

2017 ◽  
Vol 76 (10) ◽  
pp. 2593-2602 ◽  
Vahid Alimohammadi ◽  
Mehdi Sedighi ◽  
Ehsan Jabbari

Abstract This paper reports a facile method for removal of sulfate from wastewater by magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTs). Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and MMWCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results of the analysis indicated that MMWCNTs were synthesized successfully. The MMWCNTs can be easily manipulated in a magnetic field for the desired separation, leading to the removal of sulfate from wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design was applied to evaluate the effects of D/C (adsorbent dosage per initial concentration of pollutant (mgadsorbent/(mg/l)initial)) and pH on sulfate removal (%). Using RSM methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained, for removal of sulfate, by multiple regression analysis. The optimum combination for maximum sulfate removal of 93.28% was pH = 5.96 and D/C = 24.35. The experimental data were evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The adsorption capacity of sulfate in the studied concentration range was 56.94 (mg/g). It was found out that the MMWCNTs could be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfate from wastewater.

2010 ◽  
Vol 636-637 ◽  
pp. 714-721 ◽  
K. Kordatos ◽  
A. Ntziouni ◽  
A. Theodoratou ◽  
Maria Perraki ◽  
M. Terrones ◽  

The present work describes the synthesis of nitrogen doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNx CNT). The chosen production method was the catalytic pyrolysis of a solid mixture containing [Ni(DMG)2] and melamine (C3H6N6), under an Αr atmosphere. A series of various experiments were performed, using different proportions of the reaction mixture, in order to optimize the production conditions of nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes. Finally, the produced materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained data from all the above analyses, showed the formation of nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes of various diameters as well as nanofibers surrounded by byproducts such as aggregations of amorphous carbon and metallic catalyst, depending on the proportion of the reaction mixture.

2013 ◽  
Vol 431 ◽  
pp. 306-311
Xiang Tao Ran ◽  
Zhi Wang ◽  
Li Yang

With the increasing needs for high-performance gas sensors in industrial production, environmental monitoring and so on, the research on gas sensors is becoming more and more important. In this paper, the electric field intensity distribution simulation process of the interdigital microelectrodes (IMEs) is discussed in details to get the proper electrode structural parameters. The IMEs on the ITO surface with a minimum gap of about 4μm are achieved by lithography, which provides a reliable, low-cost manufacturing method. Sensitive components are made of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified materials. The gas-sensing property of the sensor is detected for ammonia. The experiment result shows that the performance of the nanomodified sensor is obviously improved.

2020 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 93
Chandramani Upadhyay ◽  
Hanzala Shahzad ◽  
Mehreen Javid ◽  
Bhumika Soni ◽  
Tameem Ahmad ◽  

2D materials like Graphene and its composite has emerged as most valuable and major concern because of their peculiar properties in field of nanotechnology in past few decades. Herein, we report the effective technique for the synthesis of functionalized r-GO/MWCNTs nanocomposite using probe sonication. The synthesized samples were tested via XRD, FESEM, FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction technique was used for the structural analysis of the samples which revealed that most prominent peak was observed around 2θ~26°. Surface morphology of the samples were studied via FESEM, which revealed that r-GO layers were wrapped around the MWCNTs. Raman spectra were recorded for the determination of quality of r-Go and MWCNT via the position and intensity of D and G band. The various functionalities present on the samples were identified via FTIR spectra.

2020 ◽  
Vol 30 ◽  
pp. 41-54
Shelan A. Farman ◽  
Muayed K. Ibrahim ◽  
Kadhim A. Aadim

Nanocarbon structures such as graphene (GR), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as well as the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited on crystalline n-type silicon wafers to fabricate nanoCarbon-Si solar cells. Nanocarbon films deposited on glass and porous silicon (PS) via pulse laser deposition (PLD) with the use of Q-Switching Nd: YAG laser with λ=1064 (nm), Energy (E)=700 (mJ), Repetition rate (f)=6 (HZ) under vacuum condition with 2.5×10-2 (mbar). The surface morphology, structure, and optical Nanocarbon thin films have been examined with the use of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscope (AFM), FTIR spectrophotometer and UV-visible. In addition, the power conversion efficiency that is related to the prepared solar cells is estimated through J-V characterization. The PCE of all Nanocarbon/PS follows the orders; SWCNTs/PS < MWCNTs/PS< GR/PS.

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