Engraving Accuracy in Early Modern England

2022 ◽  
Meghan Doherty

The book traces major concepts including: the creation of the visual effects of accuracy through careful action and training; the development of visual judgment and connoisseurship; the role of a network in the production of knowledge; balancing readers’ expectations with representational conventions; and the effects of acts of collecting on the creation and circulation of knowledge. On the one hand, this study uncovers that approaches to knowledge production were different in the seventeenth century, as compared with in the twenty-first century. On the other, it reveals how the early modern struggle to sort through an overwhelming quantity of visual information - brought on by major changes in image production and circulation - resonates with our own.

2010 ◽  
Vol 49 (3) ◽  
pp. 261-263
Laila Sohail

No debate is as engaging in the twenty-first century, as the one surrounding the phenomenon of globalisation. Economists, political scientists public policy experts, and specialists from a range of diverse disciplines are attracted to analyse this phenomenon and apply it to the world around them. The analysts are generally divided in two camps—those who praise globalisation as an evolutionary process leading to peace and prosperity, and those for whom globalisation is a curse instigating violence and conflict by undermining the role of the State and adversely affecting democracy.

Gesnerus ◽  
2016 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-72
Florike Egmond ◽  
Sachiko Kusukawa

Conrad Gessner’s Historia animalium is a compilation of information from a variety of sources: friends, correspondents, books, broadsides, drawings, as well as his own experience. The recent discovery of a cache of drawings at Amsterdam originally belonging to Gessner has added a new dimension for research into the role of images in Gessner’s study of nature. In this paper, we examine the drawings that were the basis of the images in the volume of fishes. We uncovered several cases where there were multiple copies of the same drawing of a fish (rather than multiple drawings of the same fish), which problematizes the notion of unique “original” copies and their copies. While we still know very little about the actual mechanism of, or people involved in, commissioning or generating copies of drawings, their very existence suggests that the images functioned as an important medium in the circulation of knowledge in the early modern period.

Neurology ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 90 (11) ◽  
pp. e977-e984 ◽  
Motoyasu Honma ◽  
Yuri Masaoka ◽  
Takeshi Kuroda ◽  
Akinori Futamura ◽  
Azusa Shiromaru ◽  

ObjectiveTo determine whether Parkinson disease (PD) affects cross-modal function of vision and olfaction because it is known that PD impairs various cognitive functions, including olfaction.MethodsWe conducted behavioral experiments to identify the influence of PD on cross-modal function by contrasting patient performance with age-matched normal controls (NCs). We showed visual effects on the strength and preference of odor by manipulating semantic connections between picture/odorant pairs. In addition, we used brain imaging to identify the role of striatal presynaptic dopamine transporter (DaT) deficits.ResultsWe found that odor evaluation in participants with PD was unaffected by visual information, while NCs overestimated smell when sniffing odorless liquid while viewing pleasant/unpleasant visual cues. Furthermore, DaT deficit in striatum, for the posterior putamen in particular, correlated to few visual effects in participants with PD.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that PD impairs cross-modal function of vision/olfaction as a result of posterior putamen deficit. This cross-modal dysfunction may serve as the basis of a novel precursor assessment of PD.

2021 ◽  
pp. 178-206
Leslie C. Gay Jr

This chapter considers the role of seen and unseen infrastructures in the material transmission and circulation of May Irwin’s (1862–1938) famous “Frog Song.” Just as ontologies of music shift in our digital era, the chapter peels back the hazy ontological histories of this song—as material commodity, technology, and memory—to consider its ramifications as a musical object replete with racial and social meanings. The argument developed here brings together aspects of the “hard” infrastructures of song sheet publishing, paper, and lithography, on the one hand, and the “soft” infrastructures of race, body, and memory, on the other. More specifically, the material resources of the song’s production—in printed page, body, and recorded sound—illuminate the shadowy histories of this song and emphasize how these materials reconfigure shifting notions of gender and race across cultural and historical boundaries into the twenty-first century.

2020 ◽  
Anastasia Stouraiti

Abstract This article uses the strange and marvellous as a heuristic device to study the relationship between emotions, media and politics in early modern Venice. In particular, it examines how printed news about the marvels of the Levant mediated Venice’s encounters with its colonial subjects and imperial rivals, and analyses the role of wonder and imagination in the creation of an imperial community of feelings. The article argues that a focus on the affective politics of the marvellous can shed new light on the emotional dimensions of the early modern Venetian public sphere and its links with war and empire-building.

2004 ◽  
Vol 55 (4) ◽  
pp. 654-680 ◽  

The Reformation simultaneously transformed the identity and role of bishops in the Church of England, and the function of monuments to the dead. This article considers the extent to which tombs of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century bishops represented a set of episcopal ideals distinct from those conveyed by the monuments of earlier bishops on the one hand and contemporary laity and clergy on the other. It argues that in death bishops were increasingly undifferentiated from other groups such as the gentry in the dress, posture, location and inscriptions of their monuments. As a result of the inherent tension between tradition and reform which surrounded both bishops and tombs, episcopal monuments were unsuccessful as a means of enhancing the status or preserving the memory and teachings of their subjects in the wake of the Reformation.

Volodymyr Potulnytskyi ◽  

While studying Polish-Ukrainian relations, outstanding Ukrainian conservative thinkers, namely Vjacheslav Lypynskyi and Stepan Tomashivskyi, focused mainly on the problem of distinguishing the role of Poland in the history of the Ukrainian people and on the issue of orientation towards Poland as a factor in the emergence of the Ukrainian state. The role of Poland in the history of the Ukrainian people, according to conservatives, was twofold. On the one hand, it was Poland that paved the way for Ukraine to Europeanization, providing examples of state-style literature and culture. This constructive role of Poland was especially fruitful in comparison with the Asian influences of Moscow. In this context, the conservatives emphasized that these were the Poles who played a key role in the process of separating Ukrainians from Russia, promoting the rise and establishment of the Cossacks and the Hetmanate, as well as creating the very name “Ukraine”. Conversely, the conservatives negatively assessed the Treaty of Hadiach for Ukraine, which, in their opinion, was very rational, on the one hand, and contributed, on the other hand, to the extermination of the elite and aristocratic democracy, and which disorganized the nobility and made it republican by eliminating its chivalrous essence and adding destructive anarchism instead. The conservatives also sharply assessed the Treaty of Warsaw between Petliura and Pilsudski. Simultaneously, Ukrainian monarchists did not consider Poland a force that could play a role in the creation of the Ukrainian state, although they considered the territorial autonomy of Halychyna under Poland as the first stage in educating the citizens of Western Ukraine in the spirit of the state monarchical idea. They took the position of mutual understanding between Ukrainian conservatives and Halychyna Poles in achieving the autonomy of Ukrainian lands under Poland, although they condemned the concept of a federation of Poland and Ukraine in Halychyna under the conditions put forward by Halychyna Ukrainian National Democrats. Conservatives considered such a strategy doomed to failure without the creation of a conservative territorial group in Halychyna composed of local Poles and Ukrainians. Relying heavily on local Poles not affiliated with metropolitan Warsaw, they placed the main emphasis on the internal organization of the monarchists rather than on external allies, including Poland

Irina Lukina ◽  
Angelina Selivanova ◽  
B. Temirsultanova

Excessive increase in the size of the main urban development objects on the one hand, and the creation of abstract volumes of the urban environment that do not have any familiar details comparable to the size of a person on the other hand, creates an architecture completely divorced from people and hostile to them. Therefore, there was a need to justify the use of landscape components to create a medium-scale human environment. The natural environment is that component of the spatial planning structure of the city, which, if properly placed, will absorb the negative psychological effect of the perception of huge undifferentiated abstract arrays of buildings in a re-compacted urban environment. The main criterion for the psychological comfort of a city dweller is the visual contact of a person in the house with the street, the ability to see the details and, most importantly, understand what they are in relation to the person. Along with small architectural forms, such elements will be trees, shrubs, benches, information boards, which have constant and understandable ergonomic dimensions. This is what is always referred to in the term anthropocentrism in architecture. The article proposes to clarify the concept of “human scale” on the basis of a systematic understanding of scale in architecture, and then this category of scale is considered not as a compositional means of aesthetic expressiveness of the urban environment, but as a factor in biological safety and physical survival of a person in conditions of total urbanization.

2020 ◽  
pp. 69-80
Anita Orchowska

Prefabrykacja wpłynęła w znaczy sposób na kształt architektury mieszkaniowej XX wieku, a jej znaczenie nadal nie słabnie. W przeszłości czas eksperymentu przeobraził się w burzliwy okres rozwój technologii, systemów budownictwa i ich odmian. Rolą prefabrykacji było określenie podstawowych standardów mieszkaniowych w zakresie kształtu mieszkań i charakteru zabudowy. Obecnie technologia prefabrykacji betonowej nabiera ponownie znaczenia jako współczesne tworzywo architektoniczne i jest często stosowaną metodą wznoszenia budynków mieszkalnych. Istnieje wiele możliwości jakie tkwią w produkowanych prefabrykowanych komponentach oraz zalet ekonomicznych i technologicznych. Z jednej strony elastyczność i różnorodność projektowanych elementów, z drugiej strony lepsze technologicznie prefabrykaty, w znaczny sposób pozwalają dostosować typizację do współczesnych wymagań użytkowych i estetycznych architektury mieszkaniowej. The role of prefabrication in shaping the residential architecture of the twenty-first century Prefabrication had a significant influence on the shape of the residential architecture of the twentieth century and its importance has not diminished. In the past, a time of experimentation changed into a turbulent period of technological advancement and development of construction systems and their types. The role of prefabrication was to define basic housing standards in terms of flat layouts and the character of housing developments. Currently, concrete prefabrication technology is becoming more and more important as a modern architectural material and is a frequently used method of erecting residential buildings. There is considerable potential in prefabricated components as well as economic and technological benefits. On the one hand, there is flexibility and variety of designed elements, and on the other, prefabricated components, which are technologically superior, allow an adjustment of standardisation to contemporary functional and aesthetic requirements of the residential architecture in a significant way.

2015 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-23
Katarzyna Ruchel-Stockmans

Abstract This article offers an analysis of Videograms of a Revolution (1992) by Harun Farocki and Andrej Ujica and The Pixelated Revolution (2011) by Rabih Mroue, which both reflect on the role of amateur recordings in a revolution. While the first deals with the abundant footage of the mass protests in 1989 Romania, revealing how images became operative in the unfolding of the revolution, the second shows that mobile phone videos disseminated by the Syrian protesters in 2011 respond to the desire of immediacy with the blurry, fragmentary images taken in the heart of the events. One of the most significant results of this new situation is the way image production steers the comportment of people involved in the events. Ordinary participants become actors performing certain roles, while the events themselves are being seen as cinematic. This increased theatricality of mass protests can thus be seen as an instance of blurring the lines between video and photography on the one hand and performance, theatre and cinema on the other.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document