preimplantation embryos
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2022 ◽  
Xudong Dong ◽  
Ailing Ding ◽  
Jiangwei Lin

Extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cell lines can be derived and maintained in vitro and reflect the primitive endoderm cell lineage. SOX17 is thought to be required for the derivation and maintenance of mouse XEN cell lines. Here we have re-evaluated this requirement for SOX17. We derived multiple SOX17-deficient XEN cell lines from preimplantation embryos of a SOX17-Cre knockout strain and chemically converted multiple SOX17-deficient embryonic stem cell lines into XEN cell lines by transient culturing with retinoic acid and Activin A. We confirmed the XEN profile of SOX17-deficient cell lines by immunofluorescence with various markers, by NanoString gene expression analyses, and by their contribution to the extraembryonic endoderm of chimeric embryos produced by injecting these cells into blastocysts. Thus, SOX17 is not required for the derivation and maintenance of XEN cell lines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 273-287
Amira Podolak ◽  
Joanna Liss ◽  
Jolanta Kiewisz ◽  
Sebastian Pukszta ◽  
Celina Cybulska ◽  

A retrospective case control study was undertaken at the molecular biology department of a private center for reproductive medicine in order to determine whether any correlation exists between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of cleavage-stage preimplantation embryos and their developmental potential. A total of 69 couples underwent IVF treatment (averaged women age: 36.5, SD 4.9) and produced a total of 314 embryos. A single blastomere was biopsied from each embryo at the cleavage stage (day-3 post-fertilization) subjected to low-pass next generation sequencing (NGS), for the purpose of detecting aneuploidy. For each sample, the number of mtDNA reads obtained after analysis using NGS was divided by the number of reads attributable to the nuclear genome. The mtDNA copy number amount was found to be higher in aneuploid embryos than in those that were euploid (mean mtDNA ratio ± SD: 6.3 ± 7.5 versus 7.1 ± 5.8, p < 0.004; U Mann–Whitney test), whereas no statistically significant differences in mtDNA content were seen in relation to embryo morphology (6.6 ± 4.8 vs. 8.5 ± 13.6, p 0.09), sex (6.6 ± 4.1 vs. 6.2 ± 6.8, p 0.16), maternal age (6.9 ± 7.8 vs. 6.7 ± 4.5, p 0.14) or its ability to implant (7.4 ± 6.6 vs. 5.1 ± 4.6, p 0.18). The mtDNA content cannot serve as a useful biomarker at this point in development. However, further studies investigating both quantitative and qualitative aspects of mtDNA are still required to fully evaluate the relationship between mitochondrial DNA and human reproduction.

Natalia V. Kovaleva ◽  
Philip D. Cotter

Abstract Mosaicism for unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements segmental mosaicism (SM) is rare, both in patients referred for cytogenetic testing and in prenatal diagnoses. In contrast, in preimplantation embryos SM is a frequent finding and, therefore, is even more challenging. However, there is no consistency among results of published studies on the clinical outcomes of embryos with SM, primarily due to the small number of reported cases. Moreover, there is the problem of predicting the potential for the optimal development of a mosaic embryo to a healthy individual. Therefore, we suggested comparing factors predisposing to favorable and poor prognoses, identified in postnatal and prenatal cohorts of SM carriers, with those obtained from studies on preimplantation embryos. We analyzed 580 published cases of SM including (i) postnatally diagnosed affected carriers, (ii) clinically asymptomatic carriers, (iii) prenatally diagnosed carriers, and (iv) miscarriages. We observed a concordance with preimplantation diagnoses regarding the clinical significance of the extent of mosaicism as well as a predominance of deletions over other types of rearrangements. However, there is no concordance regarding excessive involvement of chromosomes 1, 5, and 9 in unbalanced rearrangements and a preferential involvement of larger chromosomes compared to short ones. Paternal age was not found to be associated with SM in postnatally disease-defined individuals. We have identified maternal age and preferential involvement of chromosome 18 in rearrangements associated with clinical manifestations. Male predominance was found among normal pregnancy outcomes and among disease-defined carriers of rearrangements resulting in a gain of genomic material. Female predominance was found among abnormal pregnancy outcomes, among disease-defined carriers of loss and gain/loss rearrangements, and among transmitting carriers of gonadal SM, both affected and asymptomatic. According to data obtained from “post-embryo” studies, clinical manifestations of chromosomal imbalance are associated with a high proportion of abnormal cells, female gender, the type of rearrangement and involved chromosome(s), and maternal age. We believe these data are instructive in the challenging medical genetic counseling of parents faced with no option other than transfer of an embryo with segmental mosaicism.

2021 ◽  
Jiangwei Lin

Mouse extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cell lines can be derived from preimplantation embryos (pre-XEN) and postimplantation embryos (post-XEN). XEN cells share a gene expression profile and cell lineage potential with primitive endoderm (PrE) blastocysts. However, the cellular origin of XEN cells in embryos remains unclear. Here, we report that post-XEN cell lines are derived both from the extraembryonic endoderm and epiblasts of postimplantation embryos and that pre-XEN cell lines are derived both from PrE and epiblasts of blastocysts. Our strategy consisted of deriving post-XEN cells from clumps of epiblasts, parietal endoderm (PE) and visceral endoderm (VE) and deriving pre-XEN cell lines from single PrE and single epiblasts of blastocysts. Thus, XEN cell lines in the mouse embryo originate not only from PrE and PrE-derived lineages but also from epiblast and epiblast-derived lineages of blastocysts and postimplantation embryos.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260645
Yasuyuki Kikuchi ◽  
Sayaka Wakayama ◽  
Daiyu Ito ◽  
Masatoshi Ooga ◽  
Teruhiko Wakayama

Conventional in vitro culture and manipulation of mouse embryos require a CO2 incubator, which not only increases the cost of performing experiments but also hampers the transport of embryos to the other laboratories. In this study, we established and tested a new CO2 incubator-free embryo culture system and transported embryos using this system. Using an Anaero pouch, which is a CO2 gas-generating agent, to increase the CO2 partial pressure of CZB medium to 4%–5%, 2-cell embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in a sealed tube without a CO2 incubator at 37°C. Further, the developmental rate to blastocyst and full-term development after embryo transfer were comparable with those of usual culture method using a CO2 incubator (blastocyst rate: 97% versus 95%, respectively; offspring rate: 30% versus 35%, respectively). Furthermore, using a thermal bottle, embryos were reliably cultured using this system for up to 2 days at room temperature, and live offspring were obtained from embryos transported in this simple and very low-cost manner without reducing the offspring rate (thermal bottle: 26.2% versus CO2 incubator: 34.3%). This study demonstrates that CO2 incubators are not essential for embryo culture and transportation and that this system provides a useful, low-cost alternative for mouse embryo culture and manipulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zijing Zhang ◽  
Jiawei Xu ◽  
Shijie Lyu ◽  
Xiaoling Xin ◽  
Qiaoting Shi ◽  

The early stages of mammalian embryonic development involve the participation and cooperation of numerous complex processes, including nutritional, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms. However, in embryos cultured in vitro, a developmental block occurs that affects embryo development and the efficiency of culture. Although the block period is reported to involve the transcriptional repression of maternal genes and transcriptional activation of zygotic genes, how epigenetic factors regulate developmental block is still unclear. In this study, we systematically analyzed whole-genome methylation levels during five stages of sheep oocyte and preimplantation embryo development using single-cell level whole genome bisulphite sequencing (SC-WGBS) technology. Then, we examined several million CpG sites in individual cells at each evaluated developmental stage to identify the methylation changes that take place during the development of sheep preimplantation embryos. Our results showed that two strong waves of methylation changes occurred, namely, demethylation at the 8-cell to 16-cell stage and methylation at the 16-cell to 32-cell stage. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns in different functional regions revealed a stable hypermethylation status in 3′UTRs and gene bodies; however, significant differences were observed in intergenic and promoter regions at different developmental stages. Changes in methylation at different stages of preimplantation embryo development were also compared to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in sheep embryo development at the methylation level. In conclusion, we report a detailed analysis of the DNA methylation dynamics during the development of sheep preimplantation embryos. Our results provide an explanation for the complex regulatory mechanisms underlying the embryo developmental block based on changes in DNA methylation levels.

Василий Николаевич Попов ◽  
Роман Борисович Стукалин ◽  
Валерия Александровна Грибанова

В статье проводится анализ представленных на сегодня инвазивных и неинвазивных методов исследования преимплантационных эмбрионов. Показана эффективность преимплантационного генетического тестирования эмбрионов до переноса в полость матки. Также рассмотрены альтернативные менее инвазивные варианты изучения жизнеспособности эмбрионов, которые могли бы являться маркерами успешной имплантации. Проблема бесплодного брака с каждым годом становится все более и более значимой. Для части супружеских пар единственной возможностью рождения ребенка становится лечение методами вспомогательных репродуктивных технологий, эффективность которых остается на сегодняшний день не более 50 %. Особенно важным является поиск новых методик, позволяющих повысить результативность процедур экстракорпорального оплодотворения. В этом направлении крайне интересным является изучение неизвазивных методов оценки имплантационного потенциала эмбрионов. В анализе представлены работы по изучению протеома, метаболома и транскриптома эмбриона. Понимание молекулярного состава культуральных сред, в которых происходило развитие эмбриона до пятых суток культивирования, позволит глубже понять физиологию раннего развития, а также установить неивазивные критерии отбора эмбриона с лучшим имплантационным потенциалом и тем самым повысить эффективность проводимых программ вспомогательных репродуктивных технологий The article analyzes the currently presented invasive and non-invasive methods for studying preimplantation embryos. The efficiency of preimplantation genetic testing of embryos before transfer to the uterine cavity has been shown. Also considered are alternative less invasive options for studying the viability of embryos, which could be markers of successful implantation. The problem of sterile marriage is becoming more and more significant every year. For some married couples, the only possibility of having a child is treatment with methods of assisted reproductive technologies, the effectiveness of which remains at most 50% today. It is especially important to search for new techniques to improve the effectiveness of in vitro fertilization procedures. In this direction, it is extremely interesting to study non-invasive methods for assessing the implantation potential of embryos. The analysis presents works on the study of the proteome, metabolome and transcriptome of the embryo. Understanding the molecular composition of the culture media in which the development of the embryo took place until the fifth day of cultivation will allow a deeper understanding of the physiology of early development and also establish non-invasive criteria for the selection of embryos with the best implantation potential and thereby increase the efficiency of the programs of assisted reproductive technologies

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1378
Delphine Haouzi ◽  
Frida Entezami ◽  
Edward Tuaillon ◽  
Anna Gala ◽  
Alice Ferrières-Hoa ◽  

Understanding whether SARS-CoV-2 could infect cells and tissues handled during ART is crucial for risk mitigation, especially during the implantation window when either endometrial biopsies are often practiced for endometrial receptivity assessment or embryo transfer is performed. To address this question, this review analyzed current knowledge of the field and retrospectively examined the gene expression profiles of SARS-CoV-2-associated receptors and proteases in a cohort of ART candidates using our previous Affymetrix microarray data. Human endometrial tissue under natural and controlled ovarian stimulation cycles and preimplantation embryos were analyzed. A focus was particularly drawn on the renin-angiotensin system, which plays a prominent role in the virus infection, and we compared the gene expression levels of receptors and proteases related to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the samples. High prevalence of genes related to the ACE2 pathway during both cycle phases and mainly during the mid-secretory phase for ACE2 were reported. The impact of COS protocols on endometrial gene expression profile of SARS-CoV-2-associated receptors and proteases is minimal, suggesting no additional potential risks during stimulated ART procedure. In blastocysts, ACE2, BSG, CTSL, CTSA and FURIN were detectable in the entire cohort at high expression level. Specimens from female genital tract should be considered as potential targets for SARS-CoV-2, especially during the implantation window.

Yuanyuan Li ◽  
Ning-Hua Mei ◽  
Gui-Ping Cheng ◽  
Jing Yang ◽  
Li-Quan Zhou

Mitochondrion plays an indispensable role during preimplantation embryo development. Dynamic-related protein 1 (DRP1) is critical for mitochondrial fission and controls oocyte maturation. However, its role in preimplantation embryo development is still lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of DRP1 activity by mitochondrial division inhibitor-1, a small molecule reported to specifically inhibit DRP1 activity, can cause severe developmental arrest of preimplantation embryos in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Meanwhile, DRP1 inhibition resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction including decreased mitochondrial activity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced mitochondrial copy number and inadequate ATP by disrupting both expression and activity of DRP1 and mitochondrial complex assembly, leading to excessive ROS production, severe DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at 2-cell embryo stage. Furthermore, reduced transcriptional and translational activity and altered histone modifications in DRP1-inhibited embryos contributed to impeded zygotic genome activation, which prevented early embryos from efficient development beyond 2-cell embryo stage. These results show that DRP1 inhibition has potential cytotoxic effects on mammalian reproduction, and DRP1 inhibitor should be used with caution when it is applied to treat diseases. Additionally, this study improves our understanding of the crosstalk between mitochondrial metabolism and zygotic genome activation.

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