publication bias
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010136
Meng-Tao Sun ◽  
Man-Man Gu ◽  
Jie-Ying Zhang ◽  
Qiu-Fu Yu ◽  
Poppy H. L. Lamberton ◽  

Background As China is moving onto schistosomiasis elimination/eradication, diagnostic methods with both high sensitivity and specificity for Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans are urgently needed. Microscopic identification of eggs in stool is proven to have poor sensitivity in low endemic regions, and antibody tests are unable to distinguish between current and previous infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies for the detection of parasite DNA have been theoretically assumed to show high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. However, the reported performance of PCR for detecting S. japonicum infection varied greatly among studies. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall diagnostic performance of variable-temperature PCR technologies, based on stool or blood, for detecting S. japonicum infections in humans from endemic areas. Methods We searched literatures in eight electronic databases, published up to 20 January 2021. The heterogeneity and publication bias of included studies were assessed statistically. The risk of bias and applicability of each eligible study were assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool (QUADAS-2). The bivariate mixed-effects model was applied to obtain the summary estimates of diagnostic performance. The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve was applied to visually display the results. Subgroup analyses and multivariate regression were performed to explore the source of heterogeneity. This research was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered prospectively in PROSPERO (CRD42021233165). Results A total of 2791 papers were retrieved. After assessing for duplications and eligilibity a total of thirteen publications were retained for inclusion. These included eligible data from 4268 participants across sixteen studies. High heterogeneity existed among studies, but no publication bias was found. The pooled analyses of PCR data from all included studies resulted in a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83 to 0.96), specificity of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94), positive likelihood ratio of 5.90 (95% CI: 2.40 to 14.60), negative likelihood ratio of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.20) and a diagnostics odds ratio of 58 (95% CI: 19 to 179). Case-control studies showed significantly better performances for PCR diagnostics than cross-sectional studies. This was further evidenced by multivariate analyses. The four types of PCR approaches identified (convention PCR, qPCR, Digital droplet PCR and nested PCR) differed significantly, with nested PCRs showing the best performance. Conclusions Variable-temperature PCR has a satisfactory performance for diagnosing S. japonicum infections in humans in endemic areas. More high quality studies on S. japonicum diagnostic techniques, especially in low endemic areas and for the detection of dual-sex and single-sex infections are required. These will likely need to optimise a nested PCR alongside a highly sensitive gene target. They will contribute to successfully monitoring endemic areas as they move towards the WHO 2030 targets, as well as ultimately helping areas to achieve these goals.

Kybernetes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
AHmet Hakan Özkan

PurposeThe aim of this study was to survey the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and turnover intention by using meta-analysis.Design/methodology/approachEighty-three correlation values were used. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software (CMA) was used to analyze the collected studies.FindingsHeterogeneity and publication bias of each data set was tested. Each data was heterogeneous and included no publication bias. The results suggested that the effect size of distributive justice on turnover intention is −0.396, interactional justice on turnover intention is −0.341, interpersonal justice on turnover intention is −0.361, informational justice on turnover intention is −0.358, procedural justice on turnover intention is −0.369 and overall organizational justice on turnover intention is −0.436. Region was a moderator for the relationship between distributive justice and turnover intention.Originality/valueThe results of this study can provide guidance to the future researchers. Moreover, the managers can use these results for the implementation of organizational strategies and policies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 175407392110680
Juhyun Park ◽  
Xinyi Zhan ◽  
Kristin Naragon- Gainey

To better define the boundaries of conceptually overlapping constructs of intrapersonal emotion knowledge (EK), we examined meta-analytic correlations among five intrapersonal EK-related constructs (affect labelling, alexithymia, emotional awareness, emotional clarity, emotion differentiation) and attention to emotion. Affect labelling, alexithymia, and emotional clarity were strongly associated, and they were moderately associated with attention to emotion. Alexithymia and emotional awareness were weakly associated, and emotion differentiation was unrelated with emotional clarity. Sample characteristics and measures moderated some of the associations. Publication bias was not found, except for the alexithymia-emotional awareness association. This study helped to clarify the extent to which similarly defined constructs overlap or are distinct, which can inform our decision to adequately label important constructs and employ corresponding measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yu Fan ◽  
Yelin Mulati ◽  
Lingyun Zhai ◽  
Yuke Chen ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  

BackgroundSeveral active surveillance (AS) criteria have been established to screen insignificant prostate cancer (insigPCa, defined as organ confined, low grade and small volume tumors confirmed by postoperative pathology). However, their comparative diagnostic performance varies. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of contemporary AS criteria and validate the absolute diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of optimal AS criteria.MethodsFirst, we searched Pubmed and performed a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare the diagnostic accuracy of contemporary AS criteria and obtained a relative ranking. Then, we searched Pubmed again to perform another meta-analysis to validate the absolute DOR of the top-ranked AS criteria derived from the NMA with two endpoints: insigPCa and favorable disease (defined as organ confined, low grade tumors). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to identify any potential heterogeneity in the results. Publication bias was evaluated.ResultsSeven eligible retrospective studies with 3,336 participants were identified for the NMA. The diagnostic accuracy of AS criteria ranked from best to worst, was as follows: Epstein Criteria (EC), Yonsei criteria, Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS), University of Miami (UM), University of California-San Francisco (UCSF), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), and University of Toronto (UT). I2 = 50.5%, and sensitivity analysis with different insigPCa definitions supported the robustness of the results. In the subsequent meta-analysis of DOR of EC, insigPCa and favorable disease were identified as endpoints in ten and twenty-two studies, respectively. The pooled DOR for insigPCa and favorable disease were 0.44 (95%CI, 0.31–0.58) and 0.66 (95%CI, 0.61–0.71), respectively. According to a subgroup analysis, the DOR for favorable disease was significantly higher in US institutions than that in other regions. No significant heterogeneity or evidence of publication bias was identified.ConclusionsAmong the seven AS criteria evaluated in this study, EC was optimal for positively identifying insigPCa patients. The pooled diagnostic accuracy of EC was 0.44 for insigPCa and 0.66 when a more liberal endpoint, favorable disease, was used.Systematic Review Registration[], PROSPERO [CRD42020157048].

2022 ◽  
Alice Winter ◽  
Carolin Dudschig ◽  
Barbara Kaup

The embodied account of language comprehension has been one of the most influentialtheoretical developments in the recent decades addressing the question how humanscomprehend and represent language. To examine its assumptions, many studies havemade use of behavioral paradigms involving basic compatibility effects. Theaction–sentence compatibility effect (ACE) is one of the most influential of thesecompatibility effects and is the most widely cited evidence for the assumptions of theembodied account of language comprehension. However, recently there have beendifficulties to extend or even to reliably replicate the ACE. The conflicting findingsconcerning the ACE and its extensions lead to the discussion whether the ACE isindeed a reliable effect or whether it might be the product of publication bias or otherdistorting research practices. In a first step we conducted a meta-analysis using arandom-effects model. This analysis revealed a small but significant effect size of theACE (d = .129, p = .007). A second meta-analytic approach supports these findings ofthe existence of an ACE (Fisher’s method: χ2 = 124.379, p < .001). Furthermore, thetask-parameter Delay occurred as a factor of interest in whether the ACE appears withpositive or negative effect direction. This meta-analysis further assessed for potentialpublication bias and suggests that there is bias in the ACE literature.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Bader A. Alqahtani ◽  
Mohammed M. Alshehri ◽  
Ragab K. Elnaggar ◽  
Saad M. Alsaad ◽  
Ahmed A. Alsayer ◽  

(1) We aimed to systematically search available data on the prevalence of frailty among community-dwelling elders in Middle Eastern countries. The results from available studies are cumulated to provide comprehensive evidence for the prevalence of frailty. (2) Methods: A meta-analysis was done. A literature search was carried out using PRISMA guidelines in PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS websites for studies up to 2020. Inclusion criteria entailed all primary studies conducted in Middle Eastern countries on frailty in community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years and older. (3) Results: A total of 10 studies were selected for this study. Random-effects meta-analysis of nine studies indicated there was a pooled prevalence rate of 0.3924 with a standard error of 0.037. This pooled prevalence point estimate of 0.3924 was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The Egger’s regression test and the trim-fill method for detecting publication bias did not detect any evidence of publication bias in the sample of included studies. The Egger’s regression test was not statistically significant. The trim-fill method indicated zero studies were missing on either side; (4) Conclusions: The study’s findings indicate that the prevalence of frailty is higher in Middle Eastern nations. Despite indications that many of these nations’ populations are rapidly ageing, we presently lack information on the incidence of frailty in these populations; this information is essential to health, policymakers, and social care planning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Tingfeng Yu ◽  
Yaxian Wu ◽  
Jia Liu ◽  
Yanyan Zhuang ◽  
Xiaoyan Jin ◽  

Abstract Background The relationship between IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and the risk of malignancy is still controversial. This article focused on assessing the risk of cancer in patients with IgG4-RD by meta-analysis. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis characterizing the associated risk of overall malignancy and four site-specific malignancies (pancreas, lung, gastric and lymphoma) in patients with IgG4-RD. A search from 2003 to 2020 was performed using specified terms from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and SinoMed. Random-effects model analysis was used to pool standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to clarify the heterogeneity of the included studies. Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression test were used to evaluate the bias of the meta-analysis. A P value < 0.05 indicated the existence of publication bias. Results A total of 10 studies were included in the article. The overall SIR estimates suggested an increased risk of overall cancer in IgG4-RD patients (SIR 2.57 95% CI 1.72–3.84) compared with the general population. The specific SIRs for pancreas and lymphoma were higher than those of the general population in IgG4-RD patients (SIR 4.07 95% CI 1.04–15.92, SIR 69.17 95% CI 3.91–1223.04, respectively). No significant associations were revealed in respiratory and gastric cancer (SIR 2.14 95% CI 0.97–4.75, SIR 0.95 95% CI 0.24–3.95, respectively). Four studies were found to be the major sources of heterogeneity by sensitivity analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias via Egger’s test. Conclusion Compared with the general population, patients with IgG4-RD appear to have a higher risk of overall cancer, especially pancreatic and lymphoma. The risk of lung and gastric cancer was not different between IgG4-RD patients and the general population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xin Liu ◽  
Hui Li

AimPeriodontitis is an inflammatory disease that destroys both soft and hard periodontal tissues. However, a complex periodontal cytokine network remains unclear. This systematic review explored multiple cytokine gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.Material and MethodsA systematic search was performed using the databases from previous publications, which indicated the association between cytokine polymorphisms and periodontitis pathogenesis. Meta-analysis was conducted using fixed or randomized models to calculate the significance of multiple cytokine polymorphisms. A total of 147 articles were analyzed with polymorphisms in 12 interleukins [Th1 (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α), Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13), Th17 (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17), and Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β)]. Doi plot was used to probe the occurrence of publication bias.ResultsThe polymorphisms of IL-2 and TNF-α of Th1 cytokine family may be associated with the pathogenesis or the prevention of periodontitis risk, while the polymorphism of IFN-γ is not related to periodontitis risk. The polymorphisms for IL-4 and IL-13 of Th2 cytokine family are not found to be associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. For the polymorphisms of the members of Th17 cytokine family, different IL-1α polymorphisms may have inverse actions in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. IL-1β is a noteworthy cytokine biomarker in periodontitis development and progression. IL-6 may have a protective function in the inflammatory responses of periodontitis, and IL-17 has a weak relationship the inflammatory responses. The polymorphisms for the members of Treg cell cytokines may have a protective function against periodontitis risk. LFK indexes show the major asymmetry due to publication bias.ConclusionIL-1β is a notable cytokine biomarker in periodontitis risk. Treg cytokines favor an anti-inflammatory and protective environment. Further data are needed to confirm the present conclusion due to publication bias.

Holly L. Storkel ◽  
Frederick J. Gallun

Purpose: This editorial introduces the new registered reports article type for the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research . The goal of registered reports is to create a structural solution to address issues of publication bias toward results that are unexpected and sensational, questionable research practices that are used to produce novel results, and a peer-review process that occurs at the end of the research process when changes in fundamental design are difficult or impossible to implement. Conclusion: Registered reports can be a positive addition to scientific publications by addressing issues of publication bias, questionable research practices, and the late influence of peer review. This article type does so by requiring reviewers and authors to agree in advance that the experimental design is solid, the questions are interesting, and the results will be publishable regardless of the outcome. This procedure ensures that replication studies and null results make it into the published literature and that authors are not incentivized to alter their analyses based on the results that they obtain. Registered reports represent an ongoing commitment to research integrity and finding structural solutions to structural problems inherent in a research and publishing landscape in which publications are such a high-stakes aspect of individual and institutional success.

Asteray Ayenew

Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening obstetric emergency, and is a major health problem for women of fertile age. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the prevalence, determinant factors, and outcomes of ectopic pregnancy among fertile age women in Ethiopia. Method: International databases (MEDLINE/Pub Med, Hinari, Scopus, Google scholar, African journals, and literatures were searched and nine eligible cross sectional and two case control studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Eggers test and funnel plot were computed to check publication bias across the studies. Publication bias was computed using a funnel plot and eggers test. Heterogeneity of the studies was checked using Cochrane Q-test and I2 statistic. Results: The pooled prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Ethiopia was 3.61% (95%CI: 2.24–4.98, I2 = 89.2.0%, p < 0.001). Having cesarean section scar (AOR = 7.44, 95%CI: 5.48–10.09), single marital status (AOR = 5.71, 95%CI: 4.76–6.85), history of sexually transmitted infection (AOR = 4.68, 95%CI: 3.04–7.19), history of abortion (AOR = 3.89, 95%CI: 3.35–4.52), history of ectopic pregnancy (AOR = 5.74, 95%CI: 3.81–8.65), and emergency contraceptive use (AOR = 8.72, 95%CI: 2.90–26.20) were the determinant factors for the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy was high in Ethiopia. Thus, educating women to limit the number of sexual partners, smoking cessation, using a condom during sex helps prevent sexually transmitted infections and the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease is crucial.

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