potential range
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 781
Talal Yusaf ◽  
Mohamd Laimon ◽  
Waleed Alrefae ◽  
Kumaran Kadirgama ◽  
Hayder Al Dhahad ◽  

Adoption of hydrogen energy as an alternative to fossil fuels could be a major step towards decarbonising and fulfilling the needs of the energy sector. Hydrogen can be an ideal alternative for many fields compared with other alternatives. However, there are many potential environmental challenges that are not limited to production and distribution systems, but they also focus on how hydrogen is used through fuel cells and combustion pathways. The use of hydrogen has received little attention in research and policy, which may explain the widely claimed belief that nothing but water is released as a by-product when hydrogen energy is used. We adopt systems thinking and system dynamics approaches to construct a conceptual model for hydrogen energy, with a special focus on the pathways of hydrogen use, to assess the potential unintended consequences, and possible interventions; to highlight the possible growth of hydrogen energy by 2050. The results indicate that the combustion pathway may increase the risk of the adoption of hydrogen as a combustion fuel, as it produces NOx, which is a key air pollutant that causes environmental deterioration, which may limit the application of a combustion pathway if no intervention is made. The results indicate that the potential range of global hydrogen demand is rising, ranging from 73 to 158 Mt in 2030, 73 to 300 Mt in 2040, and 73 to 568 Mt in 2050, depending on the scenario presented.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Weicheng Ding ◽  
Hongyu Li ◽  
Junbao Wen

Among the impacts of ongoing and projected climate change are shifts in the distribution and severity of insect pests. Projecting those impacts is necessary to ensure effective pest management in the future. Apocheima cinerarius (Erschoff) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important polyphagous forest pest in China where causes huge economic and ecological losses in 20 provinces. Under historical climatic conditions, the suitable areas for A. cinerarius in China are mainly in the northern temperate zone (30–50° N) and the southern temperate zone (20–60° S). Using the CLIMEX model, the potential distribution of the pest in China and globally, both historically and under climate change, were estimated. Suitable habitats for A. cinerarius occur in parts of all continents. With climate change, its potential distribution extends northward in China and generally elsewhere in the northern hemisphere, although effects vary depending on latitude. In other areas of the world, some habitats become less suitable for the species. Based on the simulated growth index in CLIMEX, the onset of A. cinerarius would be earlier under climate change in some of its potential range, including Spain and Korea. Measures should anticipate the need for prevention and control of A. cinerarius in its potential extended range in China and globally.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 52
Marina J. Orlova-Bienkowskaja ◽  
Andrzej O. Bieńkowski

Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is one of 20 priority quarantine pests of the European Union. It is native to Asia and is established in the USA, Canada, European Russia, and Ukraine. We made the first prognosis of the potential range of A. planipennis in Europe based on heat availability. Mean annual growing degree days base 10 °C (AGDD10) was calculated for each grid square (0.25° × 0.25° latitude x longitude degrees) on the Earth’s surface. Minimal AGDD10 recorded in the grid squares currently occupied by A. planipennis was 714° in Asia, 705° in North America, and 711° in European Russia. Agrilus planipennis has never been recorded in localities with AGDD10 below 700°. If the phenotypic plasticity would not allow this species to overcome this threshold, cold regions of Europe would probably not be invaded by A. planipennis. Thus, Fraxinus excelsior could potentially escape from A. planipennis in some regions of Norway, Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Great Britain.

2022 ◽  
pp. 85-102
Adeel Aabir ◽  
Muhammad Yasin Naz ◽  
Shazia Shukrullah

CNTs are the element that exists with predominant physio-chemical properties, which have been extensive researched today. These properties make carbon nanotubes (CNTs) valuable in a wide potential range of applications. The production of high-quality carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) via different precursors has been reported for many years. The arc discharge is a pristine technique to form CNTs with a high-quality yield. This technique has been elucidated for a long time, but the growth condition and mechanism of affected synthesized parameters and coorelation between synthesized parameters and nucleation of carbon have not been explored. In this chapter, the authors present the factors affecting temperature, geometry, grain size, electrodes, pressure, catalyst, arc current, power supply, and growth mechanism of CNTs. The variation in parameters has been elicited along with challenges and gaps.

2022 ◽  
Xue Han ◽  
Min Wang ◽  
Jingxian Yu ◽  
Shengping Wang

The reversible layered structure of TiS2 with relaxation, such as a spring, was obtained by controlling the optimized potential range of 0.9-2.8 V (vs. Li+/Li) to yield high discharge capacity,...

2022 ◽  
Vol 283 ◽  
pp. 116966
Rudolf Kiefer ◽  
Fred Elhi ◽  
Anna-Liisa Peikolainen ◽  
Laurits Puust ◽  
Tarmo Tamm

Takahiro Kawamura ◽  
Toru Akiyama

Abstract Ga2O3 is a wide bandgap semiconductor and an understanding of its bandgap tunability is required to broaden the potential range of Ga2O3 applications. In this study, the different bandgaps of α-Ga2O3 were calculated by performing first-principles calculations using the pseudopotential self-interaction correction method. The relationships between these bandgaps and the material's hydrostatic, uniaxial, and equibiaxial lattice strains were investigated. The direct and indirect bandgaps of strain-free α-Ga2O3 were 4.89 eV and 4.68 eV, respectively. These bandgap values changed linearly and negatively as a function of the hydrostatic strain. Under the uniaxial and equibiaxial strain conditions, the maximum bandgap appeared under application of a small compressive strain, and the bandgaps decreased symmetrically with increasing compressive and tensile strain around the maximum value.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Qing Yan Liu ◽  
Sonia Leclerc ◽  
Youlian Pan ◽  
Ziying Liu ◽  
Felicity Stark ◽  

Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (Ftt) is extremely virulent for humans when inhaled as a small particle aerosol (<5 µm). Inhalation of ≥20 viable bacteria is sufficient to initiate infection with a mortality rate ≥30%. Consequently, in the past, Ftt became a primary candidate for biological weapons development. To counter this threat, the USA developed a live vaccine strain (LVS), that showed efficacy in humans against inhalation of virulent Ftt. However, the breakthrough dose was fairly low, and protection waned with time. These weaknesses triggered extensive research for better vaccine candidates. Previously, we showed that deleting the clpB gene from virulent Ftt strain, SCHU S4, resulted in a mutant that was significantly less virulent than LVS for mice, yet better protected them from aerosol challenge with wild-type SCHU S4. To date, comprehensive searches for correlates of protection for SCHU S4 ΔclpB among molecules that are critical signatures of cell-mediated immunity, have yielded little reward. In this study we used transcriptomics analysis to expand the potential range of molecular correlates of protection induced by vaccination with SCHU S4 ΔclpB beyond the usual candidates. The results provide proof-of-concept that unusual host responses to vaccination can potentially serve as novel efficacy biomarkers for new tularemia vaccines.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261626
Antigoni Akrivou ◽  
Iro Georgopoulou ◽  
Dimitrios P. Papachristos ◽  
Panagiotis G. Milonas ◽  
Darren J. Kriticos

Citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important agricultural quarantine pest, causing substantial economic losses to citrus and many other cultivated crops. Aleurocanthus woglumi is found in tropical and subtropical regions but is presently unknown in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. We used CLIMEX to model the potential distribution of A. woglumi under an historical climate scenario (centred on 1995), including a spatially explicit irrigation scenario. We found that A. woglumi could potentially invade the Mediterranean Basin, and south-east Asia, including Australia. There is potential for it to invade most of sub-Saharan Africa. Irrigation is revealed as an important habitat factor affecting the potential distribution of A. woglumi, increasing its potential range by 53% in Asia. Under a future climate scenario for 2050, its potential distribution increased across all continents except Africa, where potential range expansion due to relaxation of cold stresses was limited, and was offset by range decrease due to lethal heat or dry stress. As global climates warm, Europe is likely to face a substantial increase in the area at risk of establishment by A. woglumi (almost doubling under the 2050 irrigation scenario). The biosecurity threat from A. woglumi is significant in current citrus production areas and poses a challenge to biosecurity managers and risk analysts.

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