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Nora Geissler ◽  
Johanna Ruff ◽  
Julia Walochnik ◽  
Wilhelm Ludwig ◽  
Herbert Auer ◽  

Abstract Purpose This report describes a rare autochthonous case of human D. repens infection in Austria. Dirofilariosis is a mosquito-borne parasitic infection that predominantly affects dogs. Human D. repens infections have primarily been reported in Mediterranean countries, but are emerging throughout Central and Northern Europe. Methods The worm was removed surgically and identified using PCR and DNA sequencing. The consensus sequences were compared against reference sequences of Dirofilaria repens from GenBank. Results The 56-year-old woman acquired the infection, which presented as a subcutaneous nodule, in Vienna, Austria. This is the second autochthonous case of human D. repens infection in Austria. Conclusion The reasons for the emergence of D. repens and other parasitic infections in Central and Northern Europe are manifold, including climate change and globalization. This case demonstrates that with the growing number of D. repens infections, health care professionals must place further emphasis on emerging infectious diseases to ensure appropriate diagnostics and treatment in the future.

2022 ◽  
Sandra Fischer ◽  
Carl-Magnus Mörth ◽  
Gunhild Rosqvist ◽  
Sergey Chalov ◽  
Vasiliy Efimov ◽  

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 52
Marina J. Orlova-Bienkowskaja ◽  
Andrzej O. Bieńkowski

Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is one of 20 priority quarantine pests of the European Union. It is native to Asia and is established in the USA, Canada, European Russia, and Ukraine. We made the first prognosis of the potential range of A. planipennis in Europe based on heat availability. Mean annual growing degree days base 10 °C (AGDD10) was calculated for each grid square (0.25° × 0.25° latitude x longitude degrees) on the Earth’s surface. Minimal AGDD10 recorded in the grid squares currently occupied by A. planipennis was 714° in Asia, 705° in North America, and 711° in European Russia. Agrilus planipennis has never been recorded in localities with AGDD10 below 700°. If the phenotypic plasticity would not allow this species to overcome this threshold, cold regions of Europe would probably not be invaded by A. planipennis. Thus, Fraxinus excelsior could potentially escape from A. planipennis in some regions of Norway, Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Great Britain.

Nils O. Jõgi ◽  
Negusse Kitaba ◽  
Torgeir Storaas ◽  
Vivi Schlünssen ◽  
Kai Triebner ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Elin Almroth-Rosell ◽  
Iréne Wåhlström ◽  
Martin Hansson ◽  
Germo Väli ◽  
Kari Eilola ◽  

Dissolved oxygen in the sea is essential for marine fauna and biogeochemical processes. Decline in the sea water oxygen concentration is considered to be an effect of eutrophication, also exacerbated by climate change. The Baltic Sea is one of the most eutrophic seas in the world and is located in northern Europe. It is a vulnerable, brackish, semi-enclosed sea, suffering from high pressures from human activity. This leads to increased hypoxic and anoxic areas, which can be used as a measure of the environmental state. In the present study the extent of anoxic (O2 < 0 ml l–1) and hypoxic (O2 < 2 ml l–1) areas were estimated for the autumns in 1960–2019 using vertical profiles of observed oxygen concentrations in the Baltic proper and four sub-areas of the Baltic proper: the Bornholm Basin, the western, northern and eastern Gotland basins. From vertical profiles of observed salinity, the annual average of the halocline depths in the four sub-basins were estimated. The results imply regime shifts toward increased anoxic area extents in the Gotland basins around the turn of the 20th century. In autumn 2018, the extent of anoxic bottom areas in the Baltic Sea was record high since the start of the data series. During the later part of the studied period the depths of the halocline coincide with the depth of the hypoxia in the Gotland basins. This implies that in these basins a worst-case scenario for the extent of hypoxic areas seems to be reached.

2021 ◽  
Vol 69 (4) ◽  
pp. 497-512
Raimo Pullat ◽  
Tõnis Liibek

The inventory of Tallinn merchant Michael Meyer’s (1704–1758) property is one of the largest inventories of an 18th century citizen of Tallinn. Almost the entire world of his possessions is reflected in this unique source. The inventory provides a comprehensive picture of his success, lifestyle, and hobbies, and the diverse list of household items provides a good idea of a prosperous merchant’s home in northeast Europe in the 18th century. The unique body of sources (Michael Meyer’s will, property inventory, and auction reports) provides comprehensive insight into the development of Tallinn’s material culture, i.e., the material culture history of Northern Europe, during the century of Enlightenment.

Rafael M. Valeev ◽  
Yuri A. Zeleneev ◽  

The article examines the spread of Muslim Kufic coins in Eastern, Western and Northern Europe, on the territory of Volga Bulgaria, Ancient Rus, the neighbours of Bulgars – ancestors of the Mari, Udmurt, Mordva and other Finno-Ugric ethnicities during the early Middle Ages in the 8th – beginning of the 11th centuries. The research of these coins shows the list of countries and Muslim dynasties the above-mentioned countries had trade relations with and their chronological framework. Coins of Umayyads, Abbasids, Samanids, Buwayhids, Ziyarids, Qarakhanids and other Muslim dynasties were discovered. Ways of Kufic dirhems expansion and their chronological framework are shown. The main role of Khazar Khanate is marked for the time span of 8th – 9th centuries whereas since X century the principal part was played by Volga Bulgaria. American numismatist T. Noonan designated them as Khazar and Bulgar phases of trade of Kufic coins. Bulgar coins, minted in 902–990-s, participated actively in this process. Together they acted as a commodity and medium of exchange, which reflected the scale of trade operations of the early Middle Ages. The study of Muslim Kufic dirhems allowed the author to clear up the role of Khazar Khanate and Volga Bulgaria in the functioning of Great Silk and Volga routes in the 8th – beginning of the 11th centuries.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1810
Reimo Lutter ◽  
Gustav Stål ◽  
Lina Arnesson Ceder ◽  
Hyungwoo Lim ◽  
Allar Padari ◽  

The new European Union Forest Strategy for 2030 aims to plant an additional 3 billion trees on non-forest land to mitigate climate change. However, the choice of tree species for afforestation to achieve the maximum climate benefit is unclear. We compared the climate benefit of six different species in terms of carbon (C) sequestration in biomass and the harvested wood substitution in products to avoid carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-based materials over the 100-year period by afforesting about ¼ of the available area in northern Europe. The highest climate benefit was observed for larch, both at a stand scale (1626 Mg CO2 eqv. ha−1) and at the landscape level for the studied scenario (579 million Mg CO2 eqv.). Larch was followed by Norway spruce, poplar, hybrid aspen and birch, showing a climate benefit about 40–50% lower than that for larch. The climate benefit of willow was about 70% lower than larch. Willow showed 6–14-fold lower C stocks at the landscape level after 100 years than other tree species. The major climate benefit over the 100-year period comes from wood substitution and avoided emissions, but C stock buildup at the landscape level also removes significant amounts of CO2 already present in the atmosphere. The choice of tree species is important to maximize climate change mitigation.

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