droplet breakup
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Author(s):  
Xiaoda Wang ◽  
Yuanyuan Liu ◽  
Dayu Liu ◽  
Xuehui Ge ◽  
Ling Li ◽  
...  

Droplet breakup in micro-constrictions is an important phenomenon in industrial applications. This work aimed to investigate the droplet breakup in the square microchannel with a short square constriction to generate the slug flow, which drew little attention before. Mechanism analysis indicated that this breakup process included the shear-force-dominated, squeezing-force-dominated, and pinch-off stages. Non-uniform daughter droplets were generated in the constriction with their interface restricted in the horizontal and perpendicular directions by the microchannel walls. The average relative deviation of the daughter droplet size was < 30%, much lower than that for the breakup with the daughter droplet restricted only in one direction. An empirical equation with a deviation of < 20% was provided to show the dependence of the daughter droplet size on the operation conditions. The comparison results suggested that the different restriction effects of microchannel wall on daughter droplets led to the different breakup mechanisms in different constrictions.


2022 ◽  
pp. 110941
Author(s):  
Martha L. Taboada ◽  
Eva Müller ◽  
Nora Fiedler ◽  
Heike P. Karbstein ◽  
Volker Gaukel

Author(s):  
Yesid Ortiz Sanchez ◽  
Elkin Gregorio Flórez Serrano ◽  
Dairo Hernan Mesa Grajales

A numerical simulation of the intake and compression stroke and fuel spray and combustion in a direct injection compression ignition engine was performed using the Converge CFD software. For this purpose, the Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) k-e RNG model and an n-dodecane kinetic mechanism were used in order to obtain the flow fields in the cylinder and to perform the breakup time analysis of the Kelvin-Helmholtz model in the variables related to the spray and combustion. The turbulent flow inside the cylinder was analysed, obtaining consistent results with experimental pressure data and other research authors. The droplet breakup time is evaluated as a function of the breakup time constant (B1), the initial droplet radius (ro), the wavelength  and the maximum growth rate ( . The results indicate that the numerical method and the models used in this work are adequate to perform subsequent representative combustion analyses with values of B1=7.  It was possible to show that the formation of the species OH is greater for low values of B1. Also, higher values of the breakup time, variables such as temperature, pressure, fuel evaporation, ignition delay, and species formation are affected.


Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7786
Author(s):  
Ivan Fortelný ◽  
Josef Jůza

This paper summarizes the results of studies describing the effect of block and graft copolymers on the phase structure formation and evolution in immiscible polymer blends. The main phenomenological rules for prediction of the copolymer compatibilization efficiency are briefly described and compared with selected experimental data. The results of the theories of equilibrium distribution of a copolymer between the blend interface and the bulk phases and its effect on the blend interfacial tension are summarized. The theories of the compatibilizer effect on the droplet breakup in flow are analyzed. The mechanisms of the copolymer effect on the coalescence of droplets in flow are compared and their effect on the droplet size is shown. The problems of reliable description of the effect of a copolymer on the coalescence in quiescent state are presented. Obstacles to derivation of a realistic theory of the copolymer effect on the competition between the droplet breakup and coalescence are discussed. Selected experimental data are compared with the theoretical results.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7996
Author(s):  
Anatoliy M. Pavlenko ◽  
Hanna Koshlak

In this paper, the authors consider the processes of dynamic interaction between the boiling particles of the dispersed phase of the emulsion leading to the large droplet breakup. Differences in the consideration of forces that determine the breaking of non-boiling and boiling droplets have been indicated in the study. They have been determined by the possibility of using the model to define the processes of displacement, deformation, or fragmentation of the inclusion of the dispersed phase under the influence of a set of neighboring particles. The dynamics of bubbles in a compressible liquid with consideration for interfacial heat and mass transfer has also been analyzed in the paper. The effect of standard and system parameters on the intensity of cavitation processes is considered. Physical transformations during the cavitation treatment of liquid are caused not only by shock waves and radiated pressure pulses but also by extreme thermal effects. At the stage of ultimate bubble compression, vapor inside the bubble and the liquid in its vicinity transform into the supercritical fluid state. The model analyzes microflow features in the inter-bubble space and quantitatively calculates local values of the velocity and pressure fields, as well as dynamic effects.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11220
Author(s):  
Zhibin Wang ◽  
Tianli Sun ◽  
Zhongwei Yang ◽  
Guo Zhu ◽  
Hongyan Shi

Knowing the droplet-deformation conditions, the droplet-breakup conditions, and the drag force in the interaction between two droplets with a high Reynolds number is of importance for tracking droplet movement in the annular flow field of a gas well. The interactions between two droplets with a high Reynolds number in a tandem arrangement fixed in flowing gas was investigated. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to model the droplets’ surface structure. Two different body forces were exerted on both droplets to hold them suspended at a fixed location, which eliminated the effect of droplet acceleration or deceleration on the drag and decreased the amount of computation required. The exerted body forces were calculated using the Newton iteration procedure. The interactions between the two droplets were analyzed by comparison with the simulation results of a single isolated droplet. The effect of the separation distance on the drag force was investigated by changing the separation spacing. The simulation results showed that for droplets with a small separating space between them, the dynamics of the downstream droplet were influenced significantly by the upstream droplet. The drag coefficient of the downstream droplet decreased considerably to a small, even negative, value, especially for droplets with higher Weber numbers and smaller initial separating spaces between them, while the drag force of the upstream droplet was influenced only slightly. In addition, a formula for predicting the final drag coefficient of the downstream droplet was devised.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11146
Author(s):  
Aleksandr Minko ◽  
Oleg Guskov ◽  
Konstantin Arefyev ◽  
Andrey Saveliev

Present work is devoted to physical and mathematical modeling of the secondary disintegration of a liquid jet and gas-dynamic breakup of droplets in high-speed air flows. In this work the analysis of the experiments of water droplet breakup in the supersonic flow with Mach numbers up to M = 3 was carried out. The influence of shock wave presence in the flow on the intensity of droplets gas-dynamic breakup is shown. A developed empirical model is presented. It allows to predict the distribution of droplet diameters and velocities depending on the gas flow conditions, as well as the physical properties of the liquid. The effect of the Weber and Reynolds numbers on the rate of droplets gas-dynamic breakup at various Mach numbers is shown. The obtained data can be useful in the development of mathematical models for the numerical simulation of two-phase flows in the combined Lagrange-Euler formulation.


Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (11) ◽  
pp. 1476
Author(s):  
Pavel Tkachenko ◽  
Nikita Shlegel ◽  
Pavel Strizhak

The paper presents the experimental research findings for the integral characteristics of processes developing when two-phase liquid droplets collide in a heated gas medium. The experiments were conducted in a closed heat exchange chamber space filled with air. The gas medium was heated to 400–500 °C by an induction system. In the experiments, the size of initial droplets, their velocities and impact angles were varied in the ranges typical of industrial applications. The main varied parameter was the percentage of vapor (volume of bubbles) in the droplet (up to 90% of the liquid volume). The droplet collision regimes (coalescence, bounce, breakup, disruption), size and number of secondary fragments, as well as the relative volume fraction of vapor bubbles in them were recorded. Differences in the collision regimes and in the distribution of secondary fragments by size were identified. The areas of liquid surface before and after the initial droplet breakup were determined. Conditions were outlined in which vapor bubbles had a significant and, on the contrary, fairly weak effect on the interaction regimes of two-phase droplets.


2021 ◽  
Vol 929 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shubham Sharma ◽  
Awanish Pratap Singh ◽  
S. Srinivas Rao ◽  
Aloke Kumar ◽  
Saptarshi Basu

The multiscale dynamics of a shock–droplet interaction is crucial in understanding the atomisation of droplets due to external airflow. The interaction phenomena are classified into wave dynamics (stage I) and droplet breakup dynamics (stage II). Stage I involves the formation of different wave structures after an incident shock impacts the droplet surface. These waves momentarily change the droplet's ambient conditions, while in later times they are mainly influenced by shock-induced airflow. Stage II involves induced airflow interaction with the droplet that leads to its deformation and breakup. Primarily, two modes of droplet breakup, i.e. shear-induced entrainment and Rayleigh–Taylor piercing (RTP) (based on the modes of surface instabilities) were observed for the studied range of Weber numbers $(We\sim 30\text{--}15\,000)$ . A criterion for the transition between two breakup modes is obtained, which successfully explains the observation of RTP mode of droplet breakup at high Weber numbers $(We\sim 800)$ . For $We > 1000$ , the breakup dynamics is governed by the shear-induced surface waves. After formation, the Kelvin–Helmholtz waves travel on the droplet surface and merge to form a liquid sheet near the droplet equator. Henceforth, the liquid sheet undergoes breakup processes via nucleation of several holes. The breakup process is recurrent until the complete droplet disintegrates or external drag acting on the droplet is insufficient for further disintegration. At lower Weber numbers, the droplet undergoes complete deformation like a flattened disk, and a multibag mode of breakup based on RTP is observed.


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