practice research
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2022 ◽  
pp. 026921632110508
Claire A Collins

Background: Speech and language therapy in palliative care is a developing discipline of clinical practice. Research literature has highlighted that undergraduate palliative care education in speech and language therapy is inconsistent and inadequate. However, limited research has been carried out to date in relation to student speech and language therapists and palliative care. Aim: To explore the role of speech and language therapists in palliative care from the perspective of speech and language therapy students in Ireland. Design: A qualitative descriptive research study was conducted, involving focus group interviews. Setting/participants: Purposive sampling was used to recruit 12 student speech and language therapists from one university site for this study. Undergraduate second, third and fourth year students were eligible for inclusion. Results: This study revealed that undergraduate student speech and language therapists collectively agree that there is a role for speech and language therapy in palliative care. Although students acknowledged that speech and language therapists can make a positive difference to patients’ lives, and academic lectures were positively received, insufficient exposure to palliative care has resulted in fear, uncertainty and a lack of confidence amongst student speech and language therapists. Conclusions: A greater emphasis on palliative care is needed in undergraduate speech and language therapy education to ensure confidence and competency development. An exploration of student speech and language therapists’ experiences in a specialist palliative care unit would be advantageous to determine the appropriateness of this setting for clinical placements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 212-218
A. Batyraliev

Research relevance: the issues of organizing and conducting teaching practice at Osh State University are relevant in connection with the increase and improvement of teachers and students educational activities in general. Research objectives: to reveal the goals, objectives, content and criteria for assessing adaptation, vocational-base and vocational-profile practice. Research materials and methods: the article construction based on analysis of educational standards on pedagogical practice, on the main goals and objectives definition in adaptational-pedagogical practice. Research results: experience of organizing and conducting pedagogical practice can be theoretically and practically useful for several pedagogical universities. Conclusions: based on specialties specifics, methodological departments of pedagogical faculties have developed educational methodological complexes and syllabuses for each type of pedagogical practice.

2022 ◽  
Mai Stafford ◽  
Hannah Knight ◽  
Jay Hughes ◽  
Anne Alarilla ◽  
Luke Mondor ◽  

Background Multiple conditions are more prevalent in some minoritised ethnic groups and are associated with higher mortality rate but studies examining differential mortality once conditions are established is US-based. Our study tested whether the association between multiple conditions and mortality varies across ethnic groups in England. Methods and Findings A random sample of primary care patients from Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) was followed from 1st January 2015 until 31st December 2019. Ethnicity, usually self-ascribed, was obtained from primary care records if present or from hospital records. Cox regression models were used to estimate mortality by number of long-term conditions, ethnicity and their interaction, with adjustment for age and sex for 532,059 patients with complete data. During five years of follow-up, 5.9% of patients died. Each additional long-term condition at baseline was associated with increased mortality. This association differed across ethnic groups. Compared with 50-year-olds of white ethnicity with no conditions, the mortality rate was higher for white 50-year-olds with two conditions (HR 1.77) or four conditions (HR 3.13). Corresponding figures were higher for 50-year-olds of Black Caribbean ethnicity with two conditions (HR=2.22) or four conditions (HR 4.54). The direction of the interaction of number of conditions with ethnicity showed higher mortality associated with long-term conditions in nine out of ten minoritised ethnic groups, attaining statistical significance in four (Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean and Black other ethnic groups). Conclusions The raised mortality rate associated with having multiple conditions is greater in minoritised ethnic groups compared with white people. Research is now needed to identify factors that contribute to these inequalities. Within the health care setting, there may be opportunities to target clinical and self-management support for people with multiple conditions from minoritised ethnic groups.

B. Iyen ◽  
Y. Vinogradova ◽  
R. K. Akyea ◽  
S. Weng ◽  
N. Qureshi ◽  

Abstract Purpose Ethnic variation in risk of type 2 diabetes is well established, but its impact on mortality is less well understood. This study investigated the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in White, Asian and Black adults who were overweight or obese. Methods This population-based cohort study used primary care records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, linked with secondary care and death registry records. A total of 193,528 obese or overweight adults (BMI of 25 or greater), with ethnicity records and no pre-existing type 2 diabetes were identified between 01 January 1995 and 20 April 2018. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazards ratios (HR) for incident type 2 diabetes in different ethnic groups. Adjusted hazards ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were determined in individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Results During follow-up (median 9.8 years), the overall incidence rate of type 2 diabetes (per 1,000 person-years) was 20.10 (95% CI 19.90–20.30). Compared to Whites, type 2 diabetes risk was 2.2-fold higher in Asians (HR 2.19 (2.07–2.32)) and 30% higher in Blacks (HR 1.34 (1.23–1.46)). In individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, the rates (per 1,000 person-years) of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were 24.34 (23.73–24.92) and 4.78 (4.51–5.06), respectively. Adjusted hazards ratios for mortality were significantly lower in Asians (HR 0.70 (0.55–0.90)) and Blacks (HR 0.71 (0.51–0.98)) compared to Whites, and these differences in mortality risk were not explained by differences in severity of hyperglycaemia. Conclusions/Interpretation Type 2 diabetes risk in overweight and obese adults is greater in Asian and Black compared to White ethnic populations, but mortality is significantly higher in the latter. Greater attention to optimising screening, disease and risk management appropriate to all communities with type 2 diabetes is needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 12
Ciarrah-Jane Barry ◽  
Christy Burden ◽  
Neil Davies ◽  
Venexia Walker

Large numbers of women take prescription and over-the-counter medications during pregnancy. However, there is very little definitive evidence about the potential effects of these drugs on the mothers and offspring. We will investigate the risks and benefits of continuing prescriptive drug use for chronic pre-existing maternal conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and thyroid related conditions throughout pregnancy. If left untreated, these conditions are established risk factors for adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes. However, some treatments for these conditions are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Our primary aims are twofold. Firstly, we aim to estimate the beneficial effect on the mother of continuing treatment during pregnancy. Second, we aim to determine whether there is an associated detrimental impact on the neonate of continuation of maternal treatment during pregnancy. To establish this evidence, we will investigate the relationship between maternal drug prescriptions and adverse and beneficial offspring outcomes to provide evidence to guide clinical decisions. We will conduct a hypothesis testing observational intergenerational cohort study using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We will apply four statistical methods: multivariable adjusted regression, propensity score regression, instrumental variables analysis and negative control analysis. These methods should account for potential confounding when estimating the association between the drug exposure and maternal or neonatal outcome. In this protocol we describe the aims, motivation, study design, cohort and statistical analyses of our study to aid reproducibility and transparency within research.

A. А. Tsvilii-Buklanova ◽  
P. V. Samolysov ◽  
S. N. Belova

The state and trends of judicial practice are important indicators of the effectiveness of justice. Their study is a prerequisite for identifying shortcomings (gaps and collisions) of regulatory regulation, including in the field of procurement, as well as developing proposals to eliminate it or minimize the corresponding shortcomings.The article offers the basics of the methodology of judicial practice research on disputes and cases of violations related to the application of legislation on the contract system in the procurement of goods (including works and services) for the needs of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation.The subject of the study is typical errors in the application of material and procedural norms of contractual and interrelated branches of law, the causes and conditions of violation of the principle of uniformity of the relevant judicial practice.The authors make and substantiate proposals to improve the Methodology of comparative assessment of the activities of logistics units of the territorial bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia aimed at improving the efficiency of the use of budgetary funds by internal affairs bodies.

2022 ◽  
Raphael K Kayambankadzanja ◽  
Carl Otto Schell ◽  
Martin Gerdin Warnberg ◽  
Thomas Tamras ◽  
Hedi Mollazadegan ◽  

Objective As critical illness and critical care lack consensus definitions, this study aims to explore how the concepts are used, describe their defining attributes and propose potential definitions. Design We used the Walker and Avant stepwise approach to concept analysis. The uses and definitions of the concepts were identified through a scoping review of the literature and an online survey of 114 global clinical experts. Through content analysis of the data we extracted codes, categories and themes to determine the concepts defining attributes and we proposed potential definitions. To assist understanding, we present model, related and contrary cases concerning the concepts, we identified antecedents and consequences to the concepts, and defined empirical referents. Results The defining attributes of critical illness were a high risk of imminent death; vital organ dysfunction; requirement for care to avoid death; and potential reversibility. The defining attributes of critical care were the identification, monitoring and treatment of critical illness; vital organ support; initial and sustained care; any care of critical illness; and specialized human and physical resources. Our proposed definition of critical illness is, a state of ill health with vital organ dysfunction, a high risk of imminent death if care is not provided and the potential for reversibility. Our proposed definition of critical care is, the identification, monitoring and treatment of patients with critical illness through the initial and sustained support of vital organ functions. Conclusion The concepts critical illness and critical care lack consensus definitions and have varied uses. Through concept analysis of uses and definitions in the literature and among experts we have identified the defining attributes of the concepts and propose definitions that could aid clinical practice, research, and policy making.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Sophia Abner ◽  
Clare L. Gillies ◽  
Sharmin Shabnam ◽  
Francesco Zaccardi ◽  
Samuel Seidu ◽  

Abstract Objective To assess trends in primary and specialist care consultation rates and average length of consultation by cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), or cardiometabolic multimorbidity exposure status. Methods Observational, retrospective cohort study used linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care data from 01/01/2000 to 31/12/2018 to assess consultation rates in 141,328 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM, with or without CVD. Patients who entered the study with either a diagnosis of T2DM or CVD and later developed the second condition during the study are classified as the cardiometabolic multimorbidity group. Face to face primary and specialist care consultations, with either a nurse or general practitioner, were assessed over time in subjects with T2DM, CVD, or cardiometabolic multimorbidity. Changes in the average length of consultation in each group were investigated. Results 696,255 (mean 4.9 years [95% CI, 2.02–7.66]) person years of follow up time, there were 10,221,798 primary and specialist care consultations. The crude rate of primary and specialist care consultations in patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity (N = 11,881) was 18.5 (95% CI, 18.47–18.55) per person years, 13.5 (13.50, 13.52) in patients with T2DM only (N = 83,094) and 13.2 (13.18, 13.21) in those with CVD (N = 57,974). Patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity had 28% (IRR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.27, 1.31) more consultations than those with only T2DM. Patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity had primary care consultation rates decrease by 50.1% compared to a 45.0% decrease in consultations for those with T2DM from 2000 to 2018. Specialist care consultation rates in both groups increased from 2003 to 2018 by 33.3% and 54.4% in patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity and T2DM, respectively. For patients with T2DM the average consultation duration increased by 36.0%, in patients with CVD it increased by 74.3%, and in those with cardiometabolic multimorbidity it increased by 37.3%. Conclusions Annual primary care consultation rates for individuals with T2DM, CVD, or cardiometabolic multimorbidity have fallen since 2000, while specialist care consultations and average consultation length have both increased. Individuals with cardiometabolic multimorbidity have significantly more consultations than individuals with T2DM or CVD alone. Service redesign of health care delivery needs to be considered for people with cardiometabolic multimorbidity to reduce the burden and health care costs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Alicia V. Gayle ◽  
Cosetta Minelli ◽  
Jennifer K. Quint

Abstract Background Distinguishing between mortality attributed to respiratory causes and other causes among people with asthma, COPD, and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is important. This study used electronic health records in England to estimate excess risk of death from respiratory-related causes after accounting for other causes of death. Methods We used linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care and Office for National Statistics mortality data to identify adults with asthma and COPD from 2005 to 2015. Causes of death were ascertained using death certificates. Hazard ratios (HR) and excess risk of death were estimated using Fine-Gray competing risk models and adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and socioeconomic status. Results 65,021 people with asthma and 45,649 with COPD in the CPRD dataset were frequency matched 5:1 with people without the disease on age, sex and general practice. Only 14 in 100,000 people with asthma are predicted to experience a respiratory-related death up to 10 years post-diagnosis, whereas in COPD this is 98 in 100,000. Asthma is associated with an 0.01% excess incidence of respiratory related mortality whereas COPD is associated with an 0.07% excess. Among people with asthma-COPD overlap (N = 22,145) we observed an increased risk of respiratory-related death compared to those with asthma alone (HR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.21–1.40) but not COPD alone (HR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.83–0.94). Conclusions Asthma and COPD are associated with an increased risk of respiratory-related death after accounting for other causes; however, diagnosis of COPD carries a much higher probability. ACO is associated with a lower risk compared to COPD alone but higher risk compared to asthma alone.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003870
Helen Strongman ◽  
Helena Carreira ◽  
Bianca L. De Stavola ◽  
Krishnan Bhaskaran ◽  
David A. Leon

Background Excess mortality captures the total effect of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mortality and is not affected by misspecification of cause of death. We aimed to describe how health and demographic factors were associated with excess mortality during, compared to before, the pandemic. Methods and findings We analysed a time series dataset including 9,635,613 adults (≥40 years old) registered at United Kingdom general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We extracted weekly numbers of deaths and numbers at risk between March 2015 and July 2020, stratified by individual-level factors. Excess mortality during Wave 1 of the UK pandemic (5 March to 27 May 2020) compared to the prepandemic period was estimated using seasonally adjusted negative binomial regression models. Relative rates (RRs) of death for a range of factors were estimated before and during Wave 1 by including interaction terms. We found that all-cause mortality increased by 43% (95% CI 40% to 47%) during Wave 1 compared with prepandemic. Changes to the RR of death associated with most sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were small during Wave 1 compared with prepandemic. However, the mortality RR associated with dementia markedly increased (RR for dementia versus no dementia prepandemic: 3.5, 95% CI 3.4 to 3.5; RR during Wave 1: 5.1, 4.9 to 5.3); a similar pattern was seen for learning disabilities (RR prepandemic: 3.6, 3.4 to 3.5; during Wave 1: 4.8, 4.4 to 5.3), for black or South Asian ethnicity compared to white, and for London compared to other regions. Relative risks for morbidities were stable in multiple sensitivity analyses. However, a limitation of the study is that we cannot assume that the risks observed during Wave 1 would apply to other waves due to changes in population behaviour, virus transmission, and risk perception. Conclusions The first wave of the UK COVID-19 pandemic appeared to amplify baseline mortality risk to approximately the same relative degree for most population subgroups. However, disproportionate increases in mortality were seen for those with dementia, learning disabilities, non-white ethnicity, or living in London.

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