Cell Migration
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yinying Shen ◽  
Jun Zhu ◽  
Qianyan Liu ◽  
Shiyan Ding ◽  
Xinpeng Dun ◽  
...  

CD146 is cell adhesion molecule and is implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. However, the involvement of CD146 in peripheral nerve regeneration has not been studied yet. Here, we examine the spatial and temporal expression pattern of CD146 in injured mouse sciatic nerve via high-throughput data analysis, RT-PCR and immunostaining. By microarray data analysis and RT-PCR validation, we show that CD146 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in the nerve bridge and in the distal nerve stump following mouse sciatic nerve transection injury. By single cell sequencing data analysis and immunostaining, we demonstrate that CD146 is up-regulated in Schwann cells and cells associated with blood vessels following mouse peripheral nerve injury. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CD146 not only has a key role in promoting of blood vessel regeneration but also regulates cell migration. The biological function of CD146 in Schwann cells was further investigated by knockdown of CD146 in rat primary Schwann cells. Functional assessments showed that knockdown of CD146 decreases viability and proliferation of Schwann cells but increases Schwann cell migration. Collectively, our findings imply that CD146 could be a key cell adhesion molecule that is up-regulated in injured peripheral nerves to regulate peripheral nerve regeneration.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tania Gajardo ◽  
Marie Lo ◽  
Mathilde Bernard ◽  
Claire Leveau ◽  
Marie-Therese El-Daher ◽  
...  

The actin cytoskeleton has a crucial role in the maintenance of the immune homeostasis by controlling various cell processes, including cell migration. Mutations in the TTC7A gene have been described as the cause of a primary immunodeficiency associated to different degrees of gut involvement and alterations in the actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Although several cellular functions have been associated with TTC7A, the role of the protein in the maintenance of the immune homeostasis is still poorly understood. Here we leverage microfabricated devices to investigate the impact of TTC7A deficiency in leukocytes migration at the single cell level. We show that TTC7A-deficient leukocytes exhibit an altered cell migration and reduced capacity to deform through narrow gaps. Mechanistically, TTC7A-deficient phenotype resulted from impaired phosphoinositides signaling, leading to the downregulation of the PI3K/AKT/RHOA regulatory axis and imbalanced actin cytoskeleton dynamic. This resulted in impaired cell motility, accumulation of DNA damage and increased cell death during chemotaxis in dense 3D gels. Our results highlight a novel role of TTC7A as a critical regulator of leukocyte migration. Impairment of this cellular function is likely to contribute to pathophysiology underlying progressive immunodeficiency in patients.


Author(s):  
Jun-Qing Jin ◽  
Jeong-Sun Han ◽  
Jeonghoon Ha ◽  
Han-Sang Baek ◽  
Dong-Jun Lim

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 3537
Author(s):  
Kai-Chieh Chou ◽  
Chun-Ting Chen ◽  
Juin-Hong Cherng ◽  
Ming-Chia Li ◽  
Chia-Cheng Wen ◽  
...  

Therapeutic dressings to enhance burn wound repair and regeneration are required. Silk fibroin (SF), a natural protein, induces cell migration and serves as a biomaterial in various dressings. SF dressings usually contain α-helices and β-sheets. The former has been confirmed to improve cell proliferation and migration, but the wound healing effect and related mechanisms of β-sheet SF remain unclear. We investigated the effects of β-sheet SF in vivo and in vitro. Alcohol-treated α-helix SF transformed into the β-sheet form, which promoted granulation formation and re-epithelialization when applied as lyophilized SF dressing (LSFD) in a rat burn model. Our in vitro results showed that β-sheet SF increased human dermal fibroblast (HDF) migration and promoted the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (fibronectin and type III collagen), matrix metalloproteinase-12, and the cell adhesion molecule, integrin β1, in rat granulation tissue and HDFs. This confirms the role of crosstalk between integrin β1 and ECM proteins in cell migration. In summary, we demonstrated that β-sheet SF facilitates tissue regeneration by modulating cell adhesion molecules in dermal fibroblasts. LSFD could find clinical application for burn wound regeneration. Moreover, β-sheet SF could be combined with anti-inflammatory materials, growth factors, or antibiotics to develop novel dressings.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rulan Ma ◽  
Kun Zhu ◽  
Dawei Yuan ◽  
Meijun Gong ◽  
Yijun Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The function and regulatory mechanism of FBXO43 in breast cancer (BC) are still unclear. Here, we intended to determine the role and mechanism of FBXO43 in BC. Methods FBXO43 expression in BC was evaluated by analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RT-qPCR and western blotting were utilized to detect FBXO43 expression in BC cell lines. Lentivirus was applied to downregulate FBXO43 in human BC cells. Proliferation assays were performed to evaluate the proliferative ability of BC cells. The apoptosis and cell cycle analysis of BC cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell migration and invasion were investigated via Transwell assays. The function of FBXO43 in vivo was evaluated by constructing a xenograft mouse model. The proteins that might interact with FBXO43 in BC were identified by mass spectrometry, bioinformatics analysis, and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Finally, rescue experiments were conducted to validate the recovery effects of the proteins interacting with FBXO43. Results FBXO43 was highly expressed in BC and was significantly downregulated after FBXO43 knockdown. The proliferation, migration, and invasion of BC cells were inhibited, and cell apoptosis was induced by FBXO43 knockdown. In addition, an in vivo experiment indicated that FBXO43 knockdown could inhibit the cell growth of BC. The results of the Co-IP assay showed that FBXO43 interacted with PCNA. Further rescue experiments confirmed that overexpression of PCNA significantly reversed the effects of FBXO43 knockdown on BC cells. Conclusion Downregulation of FBXO43 inhibits the tumor growth of BC by limiting its interaction with PCNA. FBXO43 might be a new potential oncogene and a therapeutic target for BC.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Justin Ma ◽  
Lian Bi ◽  
James Spurlin ◽  
Peter Lwigale

During development, cells aggregate at tissue boundaries to form normal tissue architecture of organs. However, how cells are segregated into tissue precursors remains largely unknown. Cornea development is a perfect example of this process whereby neural crest cells aggregate in the periocular region prior to their migration and differentiation into corneal cells. Our recent RNA-Seq analysis identified upregulation of Nephronectin (Npnt) transcripts during early stages of corneal development where its function has not been investigated. We found that Npnt mRNA and protein are expressed by various ocular tissues including the migratory periocular neural crest (pNC), which also express the integrin alpha 8 (Itgα8) receptor. Knockdown of either Npnt or Itgα8 attenuated cornea development, whereas overexpression of Npnt resulted in cornea thickening. Moreover, overexpression of Npnt variants lacking RGD binding sites did not affect corneal thickness. Neither the knockdown or augmentation of Npnt caused significant changes in cell proliferation, suggesting that Npnt directs pNC migration into the cornea. In vitro analyses showed that Npnt promotes pNC migration from explanted periocular mesenchyme, which requires Itgα8. Combined, these findings show that Npnt specifies and tunes cell migration into the presumptive cornea ECM by providing a substrate for Itgα8-positive pNC cells.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elif Baris ◽  
Hande Efe ◽  
Mukaddes Gumustekin ◽  
Mualla Aylin Arici ◽  
Metiner Tosun

The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway plays an important role in controlling inflammation. This study investigated the effects of varenicline, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, on inflammatory cytokine levels, cell proliferation, and migration rates in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell lines. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of varenicline, followed by LPS incubation for 24 h. Prior to receptor-mediated events, anti-inflammatory effects of varenicline on different cytokines and chemokines were investigated using a cytokine array. Nicotinic AChR–mediated effects of varenicline were investigated by using a non-selective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine hydrochloride and a selective α7nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate. TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were determined by the ELISA test in cell media 24 h after LPS administration and compared with those of dexamethasone. The rates of cellular proliferation and migration were monitored for 24 h after drug treatment using a real-time cell analysis system. Varenicline decreased LPS-induced cytokines and chemokines including TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β via α7nAChRs to a similar level that observed with dexamethasone. Varenicline treatment decreased LPS-induced cell proliferation, without any nAChR involvement. On the other hand, the LPS-induced cell migration rate decreased with varenicline via α7nAChR. Our data suggest that varenicline inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating α7nAChRs within the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, reducing the cytokine levels and cell migration.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yongjun Choi ◽  
Vijaya Sunkara ◽  
Yeojin Lee ◽  
Yoon-Kyoung Cho

Dendritic cells (DCs), which are immune sentinels in the peripheral tissues, play a number of roles, including patrolling for pathogens, internalising antigens, transporting antigens to the lymph nodes (LNs), interacting with T cells, and secreting cytokines. The well-coordinated migration of DCs under various immunological or inflammatory conditions is therefore essential to ensure an effective immune response. Upon maturation, DCs migrate faster and more persistently than immature DCs (iDCs), which is believed to facilitate CCR7-dependent chemotaxis. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide-activated DCs produce IL-12 only transiently, and become resistant to further stimulation through exhaustion. However, little is known about the influence of DC exhaustion on cellular motility. Here, we studied the cellular migration of exhausted DCs in tissue-mimicked confined environments. We found that the speed of exhausted matured DCs (xmDCs) decreased significantly compared to active matured DCs (amDCs) and iDCs. In contrast, the speed fluctuation increased compared to that of amDCs and was similar to that of iDCs. In addition, the diffusivity of the xmDCs was significantly lower than that of the amDCs, which implies that DC exhaustion reduces the space exploration ability. Interestingly, CCR7-dependent chemotaxis against CCL19 in xmDCs was not considerably different from that observed in amDCs. Taken together, we report a unique intrinsic cell migration behavior of xmDCs, which exhibit a slower, less persistent, and less diffusive random motility, which results in the DCs remaining at the site of infection, although a well-preserved CCR7-dependent chemotactic motility is maintained.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fernando Ferreira ◽  
Sofia Moreira ◽  
Elias H Barriga

Directed collective cell migration (dCCM) is essential for morphogenesis. Cell clusters migrate in inherently complex in vivo environments composed of chemical, electrical, mechanical as well as topological features. While these environmental factors have been shown to allow dCCM in vitro, our understanding of dCCM in vivo is mostly limited to chemical guidance. Thus, despite its wide biological relevance, the mechanisms that guide dCCM in vivo remain unclear. To address this, we study endogenous electric fields in relation to the migratory environment of the Xenopus laevis cephalic neural crest, an embryonic cell population that collectively and directionally migrates in vivo. Combining bioelectrical, biomechanical and molecular tools, we show that endogenous electric fields drive neural crest dCCM via electrotaxis in vivo. Moreover, we identify the voltage-sensitive phosphatase 1 (Vsp1) as a key component of the molecular mechanism used by neural crest cells to transduce electric fields into a directional cue. Furthermore, Vsp1 function is specifically required for electrotaxis, being dispensable for cell motility and chemotaxis. Finally, we reveal that endogenous electric fields are mechanoelectrically established. Mechanistically, convergent extension movements of the neural fold generate membrane tension, which in turn opens stretch-activated channels to mobilise the ions required to fuel electric fields. Overall, our results reveal a mechanism of cell guidance, where electrotaxis emerges from the mechanoelectrical and molecular interplay between neighbouring tissues. More broadly, our data contribute to validate the, otherwise understudied, functions of endogenous bioelectrical stimuli in morphogenetic processes.


Author(s):  
Nirupama Kotian ◽  
Katie M Troike ◽  
Kristen N Curran ◽  
Justin D Lathia ◽  
Jocelyn A McDonald

Abstract Migrating cell collectives are key to embryonic development but also contribute to invasion and metastasis of a variety of cancers. Cell collectives can invade deep into tissues, leading to tumor progression and resistance to therapies. Collective cell invasion is also observed in the lethal brain tumor glioblastoma, which infiltrates the surrounding brain parenchyma leading to tumor growth and poor patient outcomes. Drosophila border cells, which migrate as a small cell cluster in the developing ovary, are a well-studied and genetically accessible model used to identify general mechanisms that control collective cell migration within native tissue environments. Most cell collectives remain cohesive through a variety of cell-cell adhesion proteins during their migration through tissues and organs. In this study, we first identified cell adhesion, cell matrix, cell junction, and associated regulatory genes that are expressed in human brain tumors. We performed RNAi knockdown of the Drosophila orthologs in border cells to evaluate if migration and/or cohesion of the cluster was impaired. From this screen, we identified eight adhesion-related genes that disrupted border cell collective migration upon RNAi knockdown. Bioinformatics analyses further demonstrated that subsets of the orthologous genes were elevated in the margin and invasive edge of human glioblastoma patient tumors. These data together show that conserved cell adhesion and adhesion regulatory proteins with potential roles in tumor invasion also modulate collective cell migration. This dual screening approach for adhesion genes linked to glioblastoma and border cell migration thus may reveal conserved mechanisms that drive collective tumor cell invasion.


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