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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
S. I. Hussain ◽  
S. Khwaja ◽  
M. Zahid ◽  
A. Karim ◽  
Z. Aziz ◽  

Abstract The assessment of the comparative effect of biosal (phytopesticide), deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) were made against two fodder pests, Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi by filter paper impregnation method. The activity of total protein contents, GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and GOT (glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase) were affected in Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda cyhalothrin. The activity of total protein contents in H. modestus was 31.053%, 4.607%, and 24.575%, against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The activity of total protein contents was observed as 24.202%, 15.25%, and 56.036% against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and biosal, respectively in H. ocimumi. The activity of GOT was observed as 98.675% for biosal 33.95% for deltamethrin and 83.619% for lambda-cyhalothrin in H. modestus. The GOT activity was estimated in H. ocimumi as 78.831%, 47.645%, and 71.287% against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The efficacy of GPT enzyme against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin was calculated as 89.26%, 73.07%, and 47.58%, respectively in H. modestus. The H. ocimumi showed GPT activity as 77.58% for biosal, 68.84% for deltamethrin, and 52.67% for lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qing Duanmu ◽  
Bie Tan ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Bo Huang ◽  
Jianjun Li ◽  

Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids (AAAs) has been demonstrated to alleviate intestinal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the piglets. But the mechanism of AAA sensing and utilization under inflammatory conditions is not well-understood. The study was conducted with 32 weanling piglets using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (diet and LPS challenge) in a randomized complete block design. Piglets were fed as basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 0.16% tryptophan (Trp), 0.41% phenylalanine (Phe), and 0.22% tyrosine (Tyr) for 21 days. The results showed that LPS treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and total protein but increased leptin concentration, the activities of alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase in serum. Dietary supplementation with AAAs significantly increased the serum concentrations of CCK, peptide YY (PYY), and total protein but decreased the blood urea nitrogen. LPS challenge reduced the ileal threonine (Thr) digestibility, as well as serum isoleucine (Ile) and Trp concentrations, but increased the serum concentrations of Phe, Thr, histidine (His), alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and serine (Ser) (P < 0.05). The serum-free amino acid concentrations of His, lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), Trp, Tyr, Cys, and the digestibilities of His, Lys, Arg, and Cys were significantly increased by feeding AAA diets (P < 0.05). Dietary AAA supplementation significantly increased the serum concentrations of Trp in LPS-challenged piglets (P < 0.05). In the jejunal mucosa, LPS increased the contents of Ala and Cys, and the mRNA expressions of solute carrier (SLC) transporters (i.e., SLC7A11, SLC16A10, SLC38A2, and SLC3A2), but decreased Lys and glutamine (Gln) contents, and SLC1A1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). In the ileal mucosa, LPS challenge induced increasing in SLC7A11 and SLC38A2 and decreasing in SLC38A9 and SLC36A1 mRNA expressions, AAAs supplementation significantly decreased mucosal amino acid (AA) concentrations of methionine (Met), Arg, Ala, and Tyr, etc. (P < 0.05). And the interaction between AAAs supplementation and LPS challenge significantly altered the expressions of SLC36A1 and SLC38A9 mRNA (P < 0.05). Together, these findings indicated that AAAs supplementation promoted the AAs absorption and utilization in the small intestine of piglets and increased the mRNA expressions of SLC transports to meet the high demands for specific AAs in response to inflammation and immune response.

Stefan Dietrich ◽  
Iris Trefflich ◽  
Per Magne Ueland ◽  
Juliane Menzel ◽  
Katharina J. Penczynski ◽  

Abstract Purpose It has been estimated that most vegans meet the total protein requirements, but whether this is also true for individual essential amino acids (AAs) is unclear. Furthermore, a shift in protein intake is suggested to alter microbiota composition, but this association is unknown in terms of veganism or individual AAs. This cross-sectional study compared vegans and omnivores regarding dietary intake and plasma concentration of AAs. The prevalence of insufficient intake of essential AAs among vegans was determined using estimated average requirements (EAR) of WHO. Moreover, correlations between AAs intake and gut microbiota were investigated. Methods Data of 36 vegans and 36 omnivores (30–60 years) were analysed. AA intake, AA plasma concentrations and gut microbiota were ascertained by three-day weighed food protocols, gas/liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively. Results At almost the same energy intake, the intake of 9 AAs in vegans was significantly lower than in omnivores, with median differences of − 27.0% to − 51.9%. However, only one female vegan showed total protein and lysine intake below the EAR. Vegans showed lower lysine (− 25.0%), but higher glycine (+ 25.4%) and glutamate (+ 13.1%) plasma concentrations than omnivores. Correlation patterns between AA intake and bacterial microbiota differed between vegans and omnivores. In vegans 19 species and in omnivores 5 species showed correlations with AA intake. Conclusion Vegans consumed apparently sufficient but lower AAs than omnivores. In addition, the different AAs intake seems to influence the microbiota composition. The use of short-term dietary data without considering usual intake limits these findings.

Tess E Altvater-Hughes ◽  
Douglas C Hodgins ◽  
Lauraine Wagter-Lesperance ◽  
Shannon C Beard ◽  
Shannon L Cartwright ◽  

Abstract Immunoglobulin (Ig) G and natural antibody (NAb) IgM are passively transferred to the neonatal calf through bovine colostrum. Maternal IgG provides pathogen- or vaccine-specific protection and comprises about 85 percent of colostral Ig. Natural antibody IgM is less abundant but provides broad and non-specific reactivity, potentially contributing to protection against the dissemination of pathogens in the blood (septicemia) in a calf’s first days of life. In the dairy and beef industries, failure of passive transfer (FPT) of colostral Ig (serum total protein (STP) <5.2 g/dL) is still a common concern. The objectives of this study were to, i) compare colostral IgG concentrations and NAb-IgM titers between dairy and beef cows; ii) assess the effect of beef breed on colostral IgG; iii) compare passive transfer of colostral Ig in dairy and beef calves; and iv) estimate the heritability of colostral IgG and NAb-IgM. Colostrum was collected from Holstein dairy (n=282) and crossbred beef (n=168) cows at the University of Guelph dairy and beef research centres. Colostral IgG was quantified by radial immunodiffusion and NAb-IgM was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In dairy (n=308) and beef (n=169) calves, STP was estimated by digital refractometry. Beef cows had significantly greater colostral IgG (146.5 ± 9.5 SEM g/L) than dairy cows (92.4 ± 5.2 g/L, p <0.01). Beef cows with a higher proportion of Angus ancestry had significantly lower colostral IgG (125.5 ± 5.8 g/L) than cows grouped as “Other” (142.5 ± 4.9 g/L, p= 0.02). Using the FPT cut-off, 13% of dairy and 16% of beef calves had FPT; still, beef calves had a significantly larger proportion with excellent passive transfer (STP ≥6.2 g/dL, p <0.01). The heritability of colostral IgG was 0.04 (± 0.14) in dairy and 0.14 (± 0.32) in beef. Colostral NAb-IgM titers in dairy (12.12 ± 0.22, log2 (reciprocal of titer)) and beef cows (12.03 ± 0.19) did not differ significantly (p=0.71). The range of NAb-IgM titers was 9.18 to 14.60, equivalent to a 42-fold range in antibody concentration. The heritability of colostral NAb was 0.24 (± 0.16) in dairy and 0.11 (± 0.19) in beef cows. This study is the first to compare colostral NAb-IgM between dairy and beef cows. Based on the range in NAb-IgM titers and the heritability, selective breeding may improve colostrum quality and protection for neonatal calves in the early days of life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yizhe Cui ◽  
Zhuorui Shan ◽  
Lintong Hou ◽  
Qiuju Wang ◽  
Juan J. Loor ◽  

This study examined the effect of mixed medicinal herbs from China in the ground form on milk yield and various blood metabolites before and after parturition in Holstein cows. Crushed Agastache rugosus, Scutellaria barbata, Pericarpium citri reticulate, and Radix glycyrrhizae were used to develop TCMF4. Thirty-two Chinese Holstein cows were randomly divided into a control group or groups receiving 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 kg TCMF4/cow/d from −7 through 21 d relative to parturition. Blood samples for serum isolation were collected at −7, −1, 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to parturition and used to measure glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), total protein, albumin, globulin, and alkaline phosphatase. Milk production was recorded daily for the first 21 d postpartum, and composition was analyzed at 7, 14, and 21 d. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for multiple comparisons. The average milk production during the first 21-d postpartum was 28.7 ± 6.9, 27.2 ± 7.1, 31.2 ± 6.8, and 38.5 ± 6.1 kg/d for control group and groups receiving 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 kg TCMF4. Thus, average daily milk production increased between 9 to 34% by supplementation with TCMF4 compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, in the middle dose group, milk concentrations of lactose and total protein decreased by 21 and 19%, respectively, at d 7 around parturition, while total solids increased by 23% at d 21 in the high-dose group. Furthermore, compared with the control group, serum BHBA decreased by 50 and 20% at d −1 and 21 around parturition in the high-dose group. Overall, TCMF4 supplementation improved dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production of dairy cows during the periparturient period without adverse effects on liver function, and plasma BHBA concentrations of dairy cows tended to decrease when dietary TCMF4 increased, which suggested that TCMF4 might be used as potential additives in dairy cows to improve production performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xin Qiao ◽  
Zhi-Rong Zhang ◽  
Xin-Yu Shi ◽  
Feng-Shuang Yi

ObjectivePre-treatment biomarkers to estimate overall survival (OS) for malignant pleural effusion (MPE) are unidentified, especially those in pleural fluid. We evaluated the relationship between OS and total protein–chloride ratio in malignant pleural effusion (PE TPClR).Materials and MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken to identify patients from 2006 to 2018 who had pathologically or cytologically confirmed MPE and received no tumor-targeted therapy. We recorded the pre-treatment clinicopathologic characteristics and follow-up status. OS was estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method, and the association between variables and OS was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsWe screened 214 patients who met the eligibility criteria. The optimal cutoff value for the PE TPClR was set at 0.53. The univariate analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between PE TPClR and OS (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis between OS and the variables selected from the univariate analysis showed that the levels of neutrophil, alkaline phosphatase, neuron-specific enolase, platelets, albumin in peripheral blood, and white blood cells in pleural effusion were also independent predictors of OS.ConclusionIn patients with MPE, pre-treatment PE TPClR independently predicts OS. Although further research is necessary to generalize our results, this information will help clinicians and patients to determine the most appropriate treatment for MPE patients.

Alessandro Fiocchi ◽  
Rocco Valluzzi ◽  
Carla Riccardi ◽  
Stefania Arasi ◽  
Anna Lucia Piscitelli ◽  

Background. The use of eliciting doses (EDs) for food allergens is necessary to inform individual dietary advice and food allergen risk-management. The Eliciting Dose 01 (ED01) for milk and egg, calculated from populations of allergic subjects undergoing diagnostic Oral Food Challenges (OFCs), are 0.2 mg total protein. The respective Eliciting Dose 05 (ED05) are 2.4 mg for milk and 2.3 mg for egg. As about 70% children allergic to such foods may tolerate them when baked, we sought to verify the EDs of that subpopulation of milk and egg-allergic children. Methods. We retrospectively assessed consecutive diagnostic OFC for fresh milk and egg between January 2018 and December 2020 in a population of baked food-tolerant children. Results. Among 288 children (median age 56 - IQR 36-92.5 months, 67.1% male) included, 87 (30.2%) returned positive OFC results, 38 with milk and 49 with egg. The most conservative ED01 were 0.3 mg total protein (IQR 0.03-2.9) for milk and 14.4 mg total protein (IQR 3.6-56.9) for egg. The respective ED05 were 4.2 (IQR 0.9-19.6) mg for milk and 87.7 (IQR 43-179) mg for egg. Such thresholds are respectively 1.5 (milk ED01), 1.75 (milk ED05), 72 (egg ED01), and 38.35 (egg ED05) times higher than the currently used thresholds. Conclusions The subpopulation of children allergic to milk and egg, but tolerant to baked proteins, displays higher reactivity thresholds than the general population of children allergic to milk and egg. Their risk stratification, in both individual and population terms, should consider this difference. In baked milk-tolerant children, milk causes reactions at lower doses than egg in our group of egg-tolerant children. This could be associated with the relative harmlessness of egg compared to milk in the determinism of fatal anaphylactic reactions in children

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Claire Tucker ◽  
Anna Winner ◽  
Ryan Reeves ◽  
Edward S. Cooper ◽  
Kelly Hall ◽  

Objective: To describe resuscitation patterns of critically bleeding dogs, including those receiving massive transfusion (MT).Design: Retrospective study from three universities (2007–2013).Animals: Critically bleeding dogs, defined as dogs who received ≥ 25 ml/kg of blood products for treatment of hemorrhagic shock caused by blood loss.Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-nine dogs were included. Sources of critical bleeding were trauma (26.1%), intra/perioperative surgical period (26.1%), miscellaneous (24.6%), and spontaneous hemoabdomen (23.1%). Median (range) age was 7 years (0.5–18). Median body weight was 20 kg (2.6–57). Median pre-transfusion hematocrit, total protein, systolic blood pressure, and lactate were 25% (10–63), 4.1 g/dl (2–7.1), 80 mm Hg (20–181), and 6.4 mmol/L (1.1–18.2), respectively. Median blood product volume administered was 44 ml/kg (25–137.4). Median plasma to red blood cell ratio was 0.8 (0–4), and median non-blood product resuscitation fluid to blood product ratio was 0.5 (0–3.6). MT was given to 47.8% of dogs. Survival rate was 40.6%. The estimated odds of survival were higher by a factor of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.174, 3.094) for a dog with 1 g/dl higher total protein above reference interval and were lower by a factor of 0.6 (95% CI: 0.340, 0.915) per 100% prolongation of partial thromboplastin time above the reference interval. No predictors of MT were identified.Conclusions: Critical bleeding in dogs was associated with a wide range of resuscitation patterns and carries a guarded to poor prognosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 329-337
Kanika Samaddar ◽  
Md Mizanur Rahman ◽  
Ziaul Haque

The aim of the present study was to know the normal haemato- biochemical profiles of black Bengal goats in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of 20 Black Bengal goats which were divided into 5 groups (4 goats in each group) on the basis of age, sex, nutritional and feeding status. The whole blood was analyzed for hematology, plasma and serum samples for biochemical analysis. The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haemato-biochemical values of the Black Bengal goat breeds with their age specificity. Total RBC (15.15 ± 1.29 million/cumm), haemoglobin (7.04 ± 1.02 g/dl), total WBC (11.64 ± 1.12), differential leukocyte counts of neutrophils (70.89 ± 2.06%), lymphocyte (23.79 ± 1.69%), eosinophil 2.1%), basophil (2.3%), MCV (35.04 ± 0.47) and PCV (26.98 ± 1.49%). This study also reveals the normal bio-logical profile counts as total protein (69.47±2.31 g/L), Albumin (42.47 ± 2.31g/L), Globulin (27.32g/L), Phosphorus (3.46 ± 1.19), blood Urea (22.97 ± 0.58), Creatinine (0.645mg/dl), ALT (20.32U/L), ALP (91.59 U/L), GGT (37.46 U/L), IgG (18.91 ± 1.14 g/L), IgM ( 2.87 ± 0.18g/L), gA (.031 ± 0.12g/L) and IL-6 (1.69±0.15g/ml). The study found higher number of RBC (million/cumm), WBC (Thousands/cumm), and PCV% in the goats of age 3 years and above (18.02 ± 1.27, 14.72 ± 1.19, and 28 ± 3.2), respectively. Besides, Neutrophils% and total protein was found higher (76.289 ± 14.5%, 77.52 ± 8.43 g/L), respectively in the Black Bengal goats of 6 months to 1 year age. Present results stated some significant variation of parameters between goats of various ages; on the other hand, some shows no significant variation at all. Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(3): 329-337, December 2021

D. Skafar ◽  
D. Shumeyko

Purpose: to study the effect of ethanol on the parameters of THC, the percentage of granulocytes and total protein in the hemolymph of the Red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).Materials and methods. The object of this experiment was 26 males of the Australian red-clawed crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) weighing from 23 to 83 g. The individuals were evenly divided into two experimental groups - with an injection of ethanol and a control group without an injection of 13 crayfish for each group. The injection dose was 2515 mg per 100 g of body weight. A day after the introduction of ethanol, hemolymph was taken with a syringe from the ventral sinus, the syringe was pre-washed with a 4% EDTA-Na2 solution. Three parameters were determined: the total hemocyte count (THC), percent granulocytes and percent total protein content. Counting of hemocytes and determination of granulocytes were performed in a Goryaev chamber under a light microscope. The total protein was determined by the refractometric method.Results. Differences in THC and total protein between the groups were statistically unreliable (p>0,05). THC in the experimental group is 36% more than in the control group. The total protein after the introduction of ethanol actually increased by 0,7%, and relatively by 14%. There were statistically different indicators of the proportion of granulocytes (p<0,05) - the average value of 33,1% in the experimental group versus 24,5% in the control group. A reliable (p<0,05) strong feedback was revealed between the total protein and the mass of individuals in both experimental groups, while in the experimental group there is a visible shift in the values of dependent hemolymph indicators towards an increase in smaller individuals.Conclusion. A single injection of ethyl alcohol with a dosage of 2515 mg per 100 g of body weight into the hemolymph of C. quadricarinatus does not cause significant changes in the THC and total protein after 24 hours. At the same time, the proportion of granulocytes actually increases by 9%, relative to 37%. This may indicate that granulocytes are involved in the formation of cancer defense mechanisms when exposed to toxic substances. The effect of different dosages of ethanol injections and the duration of its effect on hematological parameters requires additional consideration. It is necessary to investigate its effect on other indicators, such as the pH and buffer capacity of the hemolymph, the concentration of hemocyanin, glucose, lactates and calcium.

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