gut health
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Minghua Tang ◽  
Kinzie L. Matz ◽  
Lillian M. Berman ◽  
Kathryn N. Davis ◽  
Edward L. Melanson ◽  
...  

Background: An urgent need exists for evidence-based dietary guidance early in life, particularly regarding protein intake. However, a significant knowledge gap exists in the effects of protein-rich foods on growth and development during early complementary feeding.Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial of infant growth and gut health (primary outcomes). We directly compare the effects of dietary patterns with common protein-rich foods (meat, dairy, plant) on infant growth trajectories and gut microbiota development (monthly assessments) during early complementary feeding in both breast- and formula-fed infants. Five-month-old infants (up to n = 300) are randomized to a meat-, dairy-, plant-based complementary diet or a reference group (standard of care) from 5 to 12 months of age, with a 24-month follow-up assessment. Infants are matched for sex, mode of delivery and mode of feeding using stratified randomization. Growth assessments include length, weight, head circumference and body composition. Gut microbiota assessments include both 16S rRNA profiling and metagenomics sequencing. The primary analyses will evaluate the longitudinal effects of the different diets on both anthropometric measures and gut microbiota. The secondary analysis will evaluate the potential associations between gut microbiota and infant growth.Discussion: Findings are expected to have significant scientific and health implications for identifying beneficial gut microbial changes and dietary patterns and for informing dietary interventions to prevent the risk of overweight and later obesity, and promote optimal health.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT05012930.


2022 ◽  
pp. 285-338
Author(s):  
David Torrallardona ◽  
◽  
Joan Tarradas ◽  
Núria Tous ◽  
◽  
...  

Exogenous enzymes are used in pig diets to improve the availability and digestibility of some non-accessible nutrients. As result of this enhanced digestion, short fragments of these molecules may become available in the distal foregut and the hindgut and modulate microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, and overall animal health. This chapter reviews the effects of different exogenous enzymes (carbohydrases, phytases, proteases and lipases) on nutrient digestibility, gut microbial ecology, and barrier function and immunity of pigs at different ages (sows, weaned piglets, growing/fattening pigs). Exogenous enzymes are usually included into feeds as blends so they can complement each other’s activities and further improve the accessibility to non-digestible structures. Exogenous enzymes used in feed manufacturing for more than 30 years, initially to improve the digestive function of non-digestible nutrients (i.e. fibre, phytic acid, etc.), more recently other indirect actions on the regulation of gut microbiota and gut health have gained interest.


2022 ◽  
pp. 3-36
Author(s):  
Mick Bailey ◽  
◽  
Laura Peachey ◽  
Sarah Lambton ◽  
Chris Stokes ◽  
...  

To date, our understanding of the organisms which constitute the microbiomes of humans and our domesticated species has been limited by the technologies available to study them. Progress from culture to species-based DNA approaches has allowed us to appreciate the scale of animal microbiomes and the changes which can occur over time and space. However, in order to design and validate rational approaches to manipulating microbiomes to optimise health, welfare and productivity, we need to begin to understand them as ecosystems, in which the host and a complex mixture of micro-organisms are continuously engaged both in co-operation to produce resources from food and in competition for those resources. The application of ecological principles can guide this understanding, but we need to validate the concepts we use, since they may not all be as applicable as they might seem.


2022 ◽  
pp. 75-126
Author(s):  
James T. Cullen ◽  
◽  
Peadar G. Lawlor ◽  
Gillian E. Gardiner ◽  
◽  
...  

The gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in regulating pig health and growth. Understanding the functions performed by the microbiome is vital when considering it as a target to improve pig health and growth, a pursuit driven by the increasing regulation of traditional means of disease control and growth promotion. This chapter explores the structure, diversity and functions of the pig gut microbiome, focusing on the role of the resident bacterial communities. It examines their relationships, interactions, and contributions to the host, ranging from the production of antimicrobial substances and prevention of pathogen colonisation to improvement of nutrient digestibility and the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and vitamins. The chapter also reviews bacterial communication and the antibiotic resistome of the pig gut, outlining how they may be targeted/manipulated to reduce antibiotic resistance and promote improved gut health.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (716) ◽  
Author(s):  
Annalisa M. VanHook

Commensal-derived retinoic acid protects mice against infection by priming the innate defenses of intestinal epithelial cells.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Luoyi Zhu ◽  
Xin Zong ◽  
Xiao Xiao ◽  
Yuanzhi Cheng ◽  
Jie Fu ◽  
...  

Liver injury is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms of liver injury development are not clear in IBD patients. Gut microbiota is thought to be engaged in IBD pathogenesis. Here, by an integrated analysis of host transcriptome and colonic microbiome, we have attempted to reveal the mechanism of liver injury in colitis mice. In this study, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced mice colitis model was constructed. Liver transcriptome showed significant up- and down-regulation of pathways linked to immune response and lipid metabolism, respectively. Whilst the colon transcriptome exhibited dramatic alterations in immune response and pathways associated with cell growth and death. The microbiota of DSS-treated mice underwent strong transitions. Correlation analyses identified genes associated with liver and colon injury, whose expression was associated with the abundance of liver and gut health-related bacteria. Collectively, the results indicate that the liver injury in colitis mice may be related to the intestinal dysbiosis and host-microbiota interactions. These findings may provide new insights for identifying potential targets for the treatment of IBD and its induced liver injury.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Laura J. Myhill ◽  
Sophie Stolzenbach ◽  
Helena Mejer ◽  
Lukasz Krych ◽  
Simon R. Jakobsen ◽  
...  

Dietary probiotics may enhance gut health by directly competing with pathogenic agents and through immunostimulatory effects. These properties are recognized in the context of bacterial and viral pathogens, but less is known about interactions with eukaryotic pathogens such as parasitic worms (helminths). In this study we investigated whether two probiotic mixtures (comprised of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, and Enterococcus faecium [BBE], or Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies Lactis Bb12 [LB]) could modulate helminth infection kinetics as well as the gut microbiome and intestinal immune responses in pigs infected with the nodular worm Oesophagostomum dentatum. We observed that neither probiotic mixture influenced helminth infection levels. BBE, and to a lesser extent LB, changed the alpha- and beta-diversity indices of the colon and fecal microbiota, notably including an enrichment of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. by BBE. However, these effects were muted by concurrent O. dentatum infection. BBE (but not LB) significantly attenuated the O. dentatum-induced upregulation of genes involved in type-2 inflammation and restored normal lymphocyte ratios in the ileo-caecal lymph nodes that were altered by infection. Moreover, inflammatory cytokine release from blood mononuclear cells and intestinal lymphocytes was diminished by BBE. Collectively, our data suggest that selected probiotic mixtures can play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis during type 2-biased inflammation. In addition, potentially beneficial changes in the microbiome induced by dietary probiotics may be counteracted by helminths, highlighting the complex inter-relationships that potentially exist between probiotic bacteria and intestinal parasites.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Author(s):  
Brian Bicknell ◽  
Ann Liebert ◽  
Craig S. McLachlan ◽  
Hosen Kiat

There is a paucity of information on the effect of photobiomodulation therapy on gut microbiome composition. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder with few management options, although the gut microbiome has been suggested as a potential avenue of treatment. We retrospectively analysed the microbiome from human stool samples from a previously published study, which had demonstrated the efficacy of photobiomodulation to treat Parkinson’s patients’ symptoms. Specifically, we have observed changes in the microbiome of Parkinson’s patients after a 12-week treatment regimen with photobiomodulation to the abdomen, neck, head and nose. Noted were positive changes in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F:B) ratio, which is often interpreted as a proxy for gut health.


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