scots pine
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Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Björn Berg ◽  
Mikael Lönn

We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 859
Giulia Boccacci ◽  
Francesca Frasca ◽  
Chiara Bertolin ◽  
Anna Maria Siani

Among non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques applied to structural health monitoring in existing timber structures, ranging from visual inspection to more sophisticated analysis, acoustic emission (AE) is currently seldomly used to detect mechanical stresses in wooden building assets. This paper presents the results from a systematic literature review on AE NDT applied to monitor micro and macro fracture events in softwood, specifically Scots pine. This survey particularly investigates its application with respect to the tree rings density and grain angle inspection, as influencing factors well correlated with physical and mechanical characteristics of wood. The literature review was performed in a three-step process defined by the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) flow diagram, leading to the selection of 31 documents from different abstract and citation databases (Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar). The outcomes have highlighted how laboratory experiments, including several types of tests (tensile, cutting, compressive, etc.), were conducted in most cases, while a very limited number of studies investigated on in situ monitoring. In addition, theoretical approaches were often explored in parallel with the experimental one. It emerges that—for tree ring density studies—a multi-technique approach, which may include microscopic observations, could be more informative. Indeed, although not widely investigated, high/low tree ring density and grain angle were found as influencing factors on the AE parameters detected by the sensors, during condition and structural health monitoring experiments.

2022 ◽  
Arun K. Bose ◽  
Andreas Rigling ◽  
Arthur Gessler ◽  
Frank Hagedorn ◽  
Ivano Brunner ◽  

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Tatiana V. Tarelkina ◽  
Natalia A. Galibina ◽  
Sergei A. Moshnikov ◽  
Kseniya M. Nikerova ◽  
Elena V. Moshkina ◽  

Currently, there is no consensus on how growing conditions affect the heartwood formation in Scots pine. Comparing the results obtained by different authors is difficult due to methodology differences and poor descriptions of the objects used. We selected two sample plots in (1) a blueberry pine forest on nutrient-rich and moist soil and (2) a lichen pine forest on nutrient-poor and dry soil and performed their detailed characterization. The sample plots were located 22 km apart in the middle taiga subzone (Karelia Republic, northwest Russia). In each sample plot, we selected five dominant trees (model trees), from which we took cores at different trunk heights (0.3, 1.5, 4.5, 7.5 and 10.5 m). The cores were treated with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol to identify the heartwood zone. Additionally, samples were taken to study the structural features of the transition zone between sapwood and heartwood. In both forest types, the number of heartwood rings depended on the cambium age, and the patterns of parenchyma cell death did not differ in the transition zone. These facts point to a predominantly internal regulation of the heartwood formation in Scots pine. The heartwood radius and its proportion on the cross-sections were significantly higher in the blueberry pine forest than in the lichen pine forest, despite the relative values of the annual ring width. Further research is needed to develop successful Scots pine heartwood width models under a wide range of conditions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 125922
Paweł Matulewski ◽  
Agata Buchwal ◽  
Holger Gärtner ◽  
Andrzej M. Jagodziński ◽  
Katarina Čufar

2022 ◽  
Vol 156 ◽  
pp. 106325
Workson Siwale ◽  
Stefan Frodeson ◽  
Jonas Berghel ◽  
Gunnar Henriksson ◽  
Michael Finell ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 302 ◽  
pp. 114061
Valeria Mazzola ◽  
Mike P. Perks ◽  
Jo Smith ◽  
Jagadeesh Yeluripati ◽  
Georgios Xenakis

Veiko Uri ◽  
Mai Kukumägi ◽  
Jürgen Aosaar ◽  
Mats Varik ◽  
Hardo Becker ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 02012
Marina Yu. Sautkina ◽  
Nina F. Kuznetsova ◽  
Michael A. Semenov ◽  
Andrew S. Khoroschev

The transition to biologically based technologies is one of the priority scientific areas of agriculture and forestry in Russia. The aim of the work is to develop and modify the technology of using biological products on forest tree species and to test it on Scots pine. The effect of pre-sowing inoculation of pine seeds with biological products on soil germination, safety of one- and two-year-old seedlings and their biometric characteristics was studied. The results of the analysis of soil germination of seeds and the safety of 1-year-old seedlings showed that these biological products can be introduced into the technology of growing planting material of Scots pine. It was revealed that the seeds of sensitive trees of the Stupinskaya population turned out to be the most responsive to inoculation with biological products. A stimulating effect has been established on the survival rate of seedlings, preservation, height, growth and diameter of 2-year-old plants in a forestry area (Vernadsky forestry, Tambov region). The height of 2-year-old seedlings of pine 'Ostrogozhskaya' exceeds the control by an average of 18.1%. The use of this biotechnology in forestry production will create favorable conditions for the germination of pine seeds, the growth of seedlings and their higher survival rate.

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