We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.
Lithium-ion cells testing under different state of charge ranges, C-rates and cycling temperature have different degrees of lithium inventory loss, impedance growth and active mass loss. Here, a large matrix of polycrystalline NMC622/natural graphite Li-ion pouch cells were tested with seven different state of charge ranges (0-25, 0-50, 0-75, 0-100, 75-100, 50-100 and 25-100%), three different C-rates and at two temperatures. First, capacity fade was compared to a model developed by Deshpande and Bernardi. Second, after 2.5 years of cycling, detailed analysis by dV/dQ analysis, lithium-ion differential thermal analysis, volume expansion by Archimedes’ principle, electrode stack growth, ultrasonic transmissivity and x-ray computed tomography were undertaken. These measurements enabled us to develop a complete picture of cell aging for these cells. This then led to an empirical predictive model for cell capacity loss versus SOC range and calendar age. Although these particular cells exhibited substantial positive electrode active mass loss, this did not play a role in capacity retention because the cells were anode limited during full discharge under all the tests carried out here. However, the positive electrode mass loss was strongly coupled to positive electrode swelling and electrolyte “unwetting” that would eventually cause dramatic failure.
In this paper, the regioselective reactions of kaolinite and methoxy-modified kaolinite (MeO-Kaol), methanol-expanded kaolinite, with octadecyltrimethylammonium salts are compared. This study mainly concerns the reactions of kaolinite or MeO-Kaol with octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C18TAC) in methanol and the subsequent exhaustive washing of the resultant products with ethanol. X-ray diffraction patterns of the products reveal no intercalation of C18TAC between pristine kaolinite layers. Additionally, intercalation and subsequent deintercalation of C18TAC proceed in the product using MeO-Kaol. In the Fourier-transform infrared spectra, the intensities of CH2 stretching bands of the product prepared using MeO-Kaol drastically increase compared to those using kaolinite. In addition, CH2 stretching bands of the product using kaolinite are hardly observed without enlarging the spectrum. The product using MeO-Kaol also displays mass loss in the range of 200–300 °C in the thermogravimetric curve and a nitrogen content with 0.15 mass% estimated using the CHN analysis. These results therefore demonstrate an increase in the available reactive edges in the layered crystal material following an expansion of the stacked layers.
Abstract. Topographic development via paraglacial slope failure
(PSF) represents a complex interplay between geological structure, climate,
and glacial denudation. Southeastern Tibet has experienced amongst the
highest rates of ice mass loss in High Mountain Asia in recent decades, but
few studies have focused on the implications of this mass loss on the
stability of paraglacial slopes. We used repeat satellite- and unpiloted aerial
imagery between 1990 and 2020 as the basis for mapping PSFs from slopes
adjacent to Hailuogou Glacier (HLG), a 5 km long monsoon temperate valley
glacier in the Mt. Gongga region. We observed recent lowering of the glacier
tongue surface at rates of up to 0.88 m a−1 in the period 2000 to 2016,
whilst overall paraglacial bare ground area (PBGA) on glacier-adjacent
slopes increased from 0.31 ± 0.27 km2 in 1990 to
1.38 ± 0.06 km2 in 2020. Decadal PBGA expansion rates were
∼ 0.01 km2 a−1, 0.02 km2 a−1, and 0.08 km2 in the
periods 1990–2000, 2000–2011, and 2011–2020 respectively, indicating an
increasing rate of expansion of PBGA. Three types of PSFs, including
rockfalls, sediment-mantled slope slides, and headward gully erosion, were
mapped, with a total area of 0.75 ± 0.03 km2 in 2020. South-facing
valley slopes (true left of the glacier) exhibited more destabilization
(56 % of the total PSF area) than north-facing (true right) valley slopes
(44 % of the total PSF area). Deformation of sediment-mantled moraine
slopes (mean 1.65–2.63 ± 0.04 cm d−1) and an increase in
erosion activity in ice-marginal tributary valleys caused by a drop in local
base level (gully headward erosion rates are 0.76–3.39 cm d−1) have
occurred in tandem with recent glacier downwasting. We also observe
deformation of glacier ice, possibly driven by destabilization of lateral
moraine, as has been reported in other deglaciating mountain glacier
catchments. The formation, evolution, and future trajectory of PSFs at HLG
(as well as other monsoon-dominated deglaciating mountain areas) are related
to glacial history, including recent rapid downwasting leading to the
exposure of steep, unstable bedrock and moraine slopes, and climatic
conditions that promote slope instability, such as very high seasonal
precipitation and seasonal temperature fluctuations that are conducive to
freeze–thaw and ice segregation processes.
(1) Background: Residue degradation plays a very important role in terrestrial ecosystems and residue mixing is the main factor affecting the degradation rates. However, in the agricultural systems, the effect of residue mixing on the degradation of pepper residues and the microbial community in pepper root residues is not clear. (2) Methods: In this study, we added different residues into soil by using double-layered nylon litterbags in culture bottles. The treatments including pepper root (P: Capsicum annuum L.), soybean [S: Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and maize (M: Zea mays L.) residue, as well as mixtures of soybean + pepper (SP), maize + pepper (MP), maize + soybean + pepper (MSP) mixtures. Litterbags were harvested after 7, 14, 28, and 56 days, respectively. Mass loss and nitrogen and phosphorus contents in pepper residue were quantified and bacterial and fungal community levels in pepper residues were analyzed using quantitative PCR and high throughput amplicon sequencing; (3) Results: The study showed that the mass loss and fungal community abundance of pepper root residue in mixtures were higher than P, except day 7. The phosphorus contents in MSP-P and MP-P were significantly lower than that for P at day 28 and day 56. Illumina MiSeq sequencing showed that the presence of maize residue significantly altered the microbial community composition of pepper root pepper. Day 56. (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that residue mixing changed the microbial community abundance in pepper residue and promoted the degradation of pepper residues compared to pepper residue decomposition alone, especially for mixtures with soybean.
Corrosion under insulation (CUI) refers to the external corrosion of piping and vessels when they are encapsulated in thermal insulation. To date, very limited information (especially electrochemical data) is available for these “difficult-to-test” CUI conditions. This study was aimed at developing a novel electrochemical sensing method for in situ CUI monitoring and analysis. Pt-coated Ti wires were used to assemble a three-electrode electrochemical cell over a pipe surface covered by thermal insulation. The CUI behavior of X70 carbon steel (CS) and 304 stainless steel (SS) under various operating conditions was investigated using mass loss, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. It was found that both the consecutive wet and dry cycles and cyclic temperatures accelerated the progression of CUI. LPR and EIS measurements revealed that the accelerated CUI by thermal cycling was due to the reduced polarization resistance and deteriorated corrosion film. Enhanced pitting corrosion was observed on all tested samples after thermal cycling conditions, especially for CS samples. The proposed electrochemical technique demonstrated the ability to obtain comparable corrosion rates to conventional mass loss data. In addition to its potential for in situ CUI monitoring, this design could be further applied to rank alloys, coatings, and inhibitors under more complex exposure conditions.
Nutritional ecology of ropical ecosystems like Neotropical savannas, which are of high conservation concern, is understudied. Sodium is essential for heterotrophs but availability often falls short relative to plant consumer requirements. Savanna plant consumers like ants and termites should be sodium-limited due to high temperatures, nutrient-poor soils, and lack of oceanic sodium deposition. We tested the hypothesis that Neotropical savanna ants and termites are sodium-limited. Termites were tested by supplementing 0.25 m2 plots with H2O (control), 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% NaCl and measuring termite presence and artificial substrate mass loss after 1 week. Ants were tested by collecting ants that recruited to H2O (control), 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% NaCl and 1.0%, 10%, and 20% sugar baits on paired diurnal–nocturnal transects. Termites were 16 times more likely to occur on 1% NaCl than H2O plots and wood-feeding termites were most frequent. However, the decomposition rate did not differ among treatments. Ant bait use increased with increasing NaCl concentration and 1% NaCl usage was similar to sugar bait usage. Ants were 3.7 times more active nocturnally than diurnally, but contrary to predictions bait type (water, sugar or NaCl) usage did not differ between day and night. Together, these results provide strong evidence of sodium limitation in Neotropical savannas.
The eastern Tien Shan hosts substantial mid-latitude glaciers, but in situ glacier mass balance records are extremely sparse. Haxilegen Glacier No. 51 (eastern Tien Shan, China) is one of the very few well-measured glaciers, and comprehensive glaciological measurements were implemented from 1999 to 2011 and re-established in 2017. Mass balance of Haxilegen Glacier No. 51 (1999–2015) has recently been reported, but the mass balance record has not extended to the period before 1999. Here, we used a 1:50,000-scale topographic map and long-range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data to calculate the area, volume, and mass changes for Haxilegen Glacier No. 51 from 1964 to 2018. Haxilegen Glacier No. 51 lost 0.34 km2 (at a rate of 0.006 km2 a−1 or 0.42% a−1) of its area during the period 1964–2018. The glacier experienced clearly negative surface elevation changes and geodetic mass balance. Thinning occurred almost across the entire glacier surface, with a mean value of −0.43 ± 0.12 m a−1. The calculated average geodetic mass balance was −0.36 ± 0.12 m w.e. a−1. Without considering the error bounds of mass balance estimates, glacier mass loss over the past 50 years was in line with the observed and modeled mass balance (−0.37 ± 0.22 m w.e. a−1) that was published for short time intervals since 1999 but was slightly less negative than glacier mass loss in the entire eastern Tien Shan. Our results indicate that Riegl VZ®-6000 TLS can be widely used for mass balance measurements of unmonitored individual glaciers.
Clinical studies addressing the benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) diets have evoked interest in the treatment of obesity. Herein, the overall effects of IF regimens on fat-mass loss are explained in a brief review through a recent literature update. To date, human studies show a reduction in fat mass from 0.7 to 11.3 kg after IF regimens, in which the duration of interventions ranges from two weeks to one year. In light of this, IF regimens can be considered a reasonable approach to weight (fat mass) loss. However, the benefits of IF regimens occur thanks to energy restriction and cannot hence be considered the best dietary protocol compared to conventional diets.