field profile
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Qiang Qiu ◽  
Zhimu Gu ◽  
Le He ◽  
Yang Chen ◽  
Yang Lou ◽  

Tat Loon Chng ◽  
David Z. Pai ◽  
Olivier Guaitella ◽  
Svetlana M Starikovskaia ◽  
Anne Bourdon

Abstract Electric field induced second harmonic (E-FISH) generation has emerged as a versatile tool for measuring absolute electric field strengths in time-varying, non-equilibrium plasmas and gas discharges. Yet recent work has demonstrated that the E-FISH signal, when produced with tightly focused laser beams, exhibits a strong dependence on both the length and shape of the applied electric field profile (along the axis of laser beam propagation). In this paper, we examine the effect of this dependence more meaningfully, by predicting what an E-FISH experiment would measure in a plasma, using 2D axisymmetric numerical fluid simulations as the true value. A pin-plane nanosecond discharge at atmospheric pressure is adopted as the test configuration, and the electric field evolution during the propagation of the ionization wave (IW) is specifically analyzed. We find that the various phases of this evolution (before and up to the front arrival, immediately behind the front and after the connection to the grounded plane) are quite accurately described by three unique electric field profile shapes, each of which produces a different response in the E-FISH signal. As a result, the accuracy of an E-FISH measurement is generally predicted to be comparable in the first and third phases of the IW evolution, and significantly poorer in the second (intermediate) phase. Fortunately, even though the absolute error in the field strength at certain time instants could be large, the overall shape of the field evolution curve is relatively well captured by E-FISH. Guided by the simulation results, we propose a procedure for estimating the error in the initial phase of the IW development, based on the presumption that the starting field profile mirrors that of its corresponding Laplacian conditions before evolving further. We expect that this approach may be readily generalized and applicable to other IW problems or phenomena, thus extending the utility of the E-FISH diagnostic.

2021 ◽  
A.E. Kim ◽  
E.B. Shustov ◽  
A.V. Lemeshchenko

In a study on healthy athletes of the track and field profile, it was shown that the hypoxia of physical activity is most fully reflected by the indicator of specific oxygen debt (maximum oxygen debt divided by 1000 J of work performed). When simulating load hypoxia in laboratory animals, direct registration of the arising oxygen debt is technically difficult to implement, and its indirect signs may be a decrease in peripheral blood saturation, excessive tachycardia, and hyperlactatemia of the post-load period. Key words: hypoxia of physical activity, oxygen debt, athletes, laboratory animals, blood lactate, physical activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 81 (12) ◽  
Shahin Mamedov ◽  
Shahnaz Taghiyeva

AbstractWe study the temperature dependence of the $$a_1$$ a 1 meson-nucleon coupling constant in the framework of the soft-wall AdS/QCD model with thermal dilaton field. Profile functions for the axial-vector and fermion fields in the AdS-Schwarzschild metric are presented. It is constructed an interaction Lagrangian for the fermion-axial-vector-thermal dilaton fields system in the bulk of space-time. From this Lagrangian integral representation for the $$g_{a_1NN}$$ g a 1 N N coupling constant is derived. The temperature dependence of this coupling constant is numerically analyzed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Abdelqader Zaben ◽  
Guntars Kitenbergs ◽  
Andrejs Cēbers

AbstractMagnetic filaments driven by external magnetic field are an interesting topic of research in-terms of the possible bio-medical applications. In this paper, we investigated the applicability of using ferromagnetic filaments as micro swimmers both experimentally and numerically. It was found that applying a pulse wave field profile with a duty cycle of 30$$\%$$ % induced experimentally observable swimming, which is similar to the breast stroke of micro algae. Good agreement with numerical simulations was found. Moreover, for stable continuous swimming, an initial filament shape is required to avoid transition to the structurally preferred non-swimming S-like mode.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (11) ◽  
Mariana Carrillo González ◽  
Claudia de Rham ◽  
Andrew J. Tolley

Abstract Amplitude methods have proven to be a promising technique to perform Post-Minkowskian calculations used as inputs to construct gravitational waveforms. In this paper, we show how these methods can be extended beyond the standard calculations in General Relativity with a minimal coupling to matter. As proof of principle, we consider spinless particles conformally coupled to a gravitational helicity-0 mode. We clarify the subtleties in the matching procedure that lead to the potential for conformally coupled matter. We show that in the probe particle limit, we can reproduce well known results for the field profile. With the scattering amplitudes at hand, we compute the conservative potential and scattering angle for the binary system. We find that the result is a non trivial expansion that involves not only the coupling strengths, but also a non trivial dependence on the energy/momentum of the scattered particles.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 729
Maria Antonia Maisto

In this paper, the problem to estimate the on-axis resolution in creating a desired field profile by radiation of an aperture A is addressed. The latter applies in both diffractive optics and antenna synthesis. This is because the ‘aperture theory’, A can schematize a source, for example, an antenna or a lens illuminated by an incident field radiating a significant field only on the same aperture. The analysis refers to a customary axicon geometry consisting of a circle aperture transverse to the observation domain. The aim was to find a resolution formula allowing to highlight the impact of aperture geometrical parameters for configurations that are below the Fresnel approximation. The results show that the aperture cannot approximate the target field with the same level of accuracy along with the observation domain. In particular, near the aperture, smaller details can be retrieved and as the distance increases this ability degrades.

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