With the development of large-scale CMOS-integrated circuit manufacturing technology, microprocessor chips are more vulnerable to soft errors and radiation interference, resulting in reduced reliability. Core reliability is an important element of the microprocessor’s ability to resist soft errors. This paper proposes DuckCore, a fault-tolerant processor core architecture based on the free and open instruction set architecture (ISA) RISC-V. This architecture uses improved SECDED (single error correction, double error detection) code between pipelines, detects processor operating errors in real-time through the Supervision unit, and takes instruction rollbacks for different error types, which not only saves resources but also improves the reliability of the processor core. In the implementation process, all error injection tests are passed to verify the completeness of the function. In order to better verify the performance of the processor under different error intensity injections, the software is used to inject errors, the running program is run on the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), and the impact of the actual radiation environment on the architecture is evaluated through the results. The architecture is applied to three–five-stage open-source processor cores and the results show that this method consumes fewer resources and its discrete design makes it more portable.
The energy-efficient circuits, though important in IoT and biomedical applications, are vulnerable to soft errors due to their low voltages and small node capacitances. This paper presents an energy-efficient low-area double-node-upset-hardened latch (EEDHL). The proposed latch enhances the radiation hardness by employing a restorer circuit based on a Muller C-element and a memory element. The post-layout simulations show that the EEDHL improves the area–energy–delay product (AEDP) by [Formula: see text]80% compared to the newly reported double-node-upset-resilient latch (DNURL) in STMicroelectronics 65-nm CMOS technology. Synopsys TCAD mixed-mode simulations in 32-nm CMOS technology framework are also used to validate the proposed DNU-hardened latch. The proposed EEDHL effectively mitigates the DNU at the strike with a linear energy transfer (LET) equal to 160[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]/mg in 32-nm CMOS technology.
Aerospace equipages encounter potential radiation footprints through which soft errors occur in the memories onboard. Hence, robustness against radiation with reliability in memory cells is a crucial factor in aerospace electronic systems. This work proposes a novel Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) in designing a robust memory cell to overcome these soft errors. Further, a petite driver circuit to test the SRAM cells which serve the purpose of precharge and sense amplifier, and has a reduction in threefold of transistor count is recommended. Additionally, analysis of robustness against radiation in varying memory cells is carried out using standard GPDK 90 nm, GPDK 45 nm, and 14 nm CNTFET. The reliability of memory cells depends on the critical charge of a device, and it is tested by striking an equivalent current charge of the cosmic ray’s linear energy transfer (LET) level. Also, the robustness of the memory cell is tested against the variation in process, voltage and temperature. Though CNTFET surges with high power consumption, it exhibits better noise margin and depleted access time. GPDK 45 nm has an average of 40% increase in SNM and 93% reduction of power compared to the 14 nm CNTFET with 96% of surge in write access time. Thus, the conventional MOSFET’s 45 nm node outperforms all the configurations in terms of static noise margin, power, and read delay which swaps with increased write access time.
Aggressive technology scaling and near-threshold computing have made soft error reliability one of the leading design considerations in modern embedded microprocessors. Although traditional hardware/software redundancy-based schemes can provide a high level of protection, they incur significant overheads in terms of performance and hardware resources. The considerable overheads from such full redundancy-based techniques has motivated researchers to propose low-cost soft error protection schemes, such as symptom-based error protection schemes. The main idea behind a symptom-based error protection scheme is that soft errors in the system will quickly generate some symptoms, such as exceptions, branch mispredictions, cache or TLB misses, or unpredictable variable values. Therefore, monitoring such infrequent symptoms makes it possible to cover the manifestation of failures caused by soft errors. Symptom-based protection schemes have been suggested as shortcuts to achieve acceptable reliability with comparable overheads. Since the symptom-based protection schemes seem attractive due to their generality and simplicity, even state-of-the-art protection schemes exploit them as the baseline protections. However, our detailed analysis of the fault coverage and performance overheads of such schemes reveals that the user-visible failure coverage, particularly of ReStore, is limited (29% on average). By contrast, the runtime overheads are significant (40% on average) because the majority of the fault injection experiments, which were considered as detected/recovered failures by low-level symptoms, are actually benign faults by program-level masking effects.
Smart ubiquitous sensors have been deployed in wireless body area networks to improve digital health-care services. As the requirement for computing power has drastically increased in recent years, the design of low power static RAM-based ubiquitous sensors is highly required for wireless body area networks. However, SRAM cells are increasingly susceptible to soft errors due to short supply voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to design a low power SRAM- based ubiquitous sensor for healthcare applications.
In this work, bias temperature instabilities are identified as significant issues in SRAM design. A level shifter circuit is proposed to get rid of soft errors and bias temperature instability problems.
Bias Temperature Instabilities are focused on in recent SRAM design for minimizing degradation. When compared to the existing SRAM design, the proposed FinFET-based SRAM obtains better results in terms of latency, power and static noise margin. Body area networks in biomedical applications demand low power ubiquitous sensors to improve battery life. The proposed low power SRAM-based ubiquitous sensors are found to be suitable for portable health-care devices.
In wireless body area networks, the design of low power SRAM-based ubiquitous sensors are highly essential. This design is power efficient and it overcomes the effect of bias temperature instability.
Software play remarkable roles in different critical applications. On the other hand, due to the shrinking of transistor size and reduction in supply voltage, radiation-induced transient errors (soft errors) have become an important source of computer systems failure. As the rate of transient hardware faults increases, researchers have investigated software techniques to control these faults. Performance overhead is the main drawback of software-implemented methods like recovery blocks that use technical redundancy. Enhancing the software reliability against soft errors by utilizing inherently error masking (invulnerable) programming structures is the main goal of this study. During the programming phase and at the source code level, programmers can select different storage classes such as automatic, global, static and register for the data into their program without paying attention to their inherent reliability. In this study, the inherent effects of these storage classes on the program reliability are investigated. Extensive series of profiling and fault-injection experiments were performed on the set of benchmark programs implemented with different storage classes. Regarding the results of experiments, we find that the programs implemented with automatic storage classes have inherently higher reliability than the programs with static and register storage classes without performance overhead. This finding enables the programmers to develop highly reliable programs without technical redundancy and performance overhead.