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S. Sheik Asraf ◽  
P. Pavithra ◽  
R. Muneeswari ◽  
Athira Rajan ◽  

Computer keyboards of a teaching laboratory were examined and bacteria were isolated from computer keyboards. The subsequent tests were done for the bacterial isolates: methyl red, vogus proskaur, citrate utilization, urease and TSI. This study paves the way to look at an inanimate object like computer keyboard as potential reservoir of bacteria.

Amina Badmos ◽  
Yetunde Mahmood

Study on toxigenic mycoflora and potential mitigation effect of Christmas Melon (Laganaria Breviflorus) extract in unpolished rice sold in Abeokuta Ogun state of Nigeria was carried out. Unpolished rice gotten from markets in Abeokuta were aseptically transported to the laboratory, serial dilution to reduce the fungal load was carried out and were plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Methyl Red Dessicated Coconut Agar (MRDCA) respectively. Microscopy, macroscopy, toxigenicity test and inhibition studies with the peeled and unpeeled fruit of Laganaria breviflorus fermented for seven days was carried out. Results reveal the predominance of Aspergillus as the major genera, specifically, A. niger, A.flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. nidulans. Other fungi genera isolated include Penicillium, F`usarium, Mucor, Alternaria and Rhizopus . Of the 11 fungi genera isolated, 9 were toxigenic of which the zones of inhibition of unpeeled whole fruit extract of Laganaria breviflorus range from (3 - 28mm) where A. nidulans shows the highest susceptibility to the whole fruit extract of Laganaria breviflorus while the zone of inhibition of peeled fruit extract of Laganaria breviflorus ranges from (3 - 22mm) where A. parasiticus, Fusarium specie and P.chrysogenum showed the highest susceptibility . As the day progresses the zone of inhibition becomes wider. Unpeeled LB extract exhibited more zones of inhibition than the peeled LB extract. Laganaria breviflorus fruit extracts in the study demonstrates a potential in reducing toxigenic fungi, consequently a means to reducing mycotoxins in staple foods in Nigeria.

Reina Puspita Rahmaniar ◽  
Dyah Widhowati ◽  
Nurul Hidayah

Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the resistance of several antibiotics phenotypically and genotypically to detect the tetA gene from broiler chicken liver samples at Dukuh Kupang market, Surabaya. A total of 30 samples were taken and then prepared aseptically and sterile. Isolation on Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMBA) media, then microscopic examination using gram staining and biochemical tests of Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSIA), Sulfide Indole Motility (SIM), Methyl Red (MR), Voges Prouskauers (VP) and Simons Citrate Agar (SCA). The identified Escherichia coli colonies were tested for antibiotic sensitivity using the Kirby Bauer method, then isolates that were proven to be resistant to tetracycline antibiotics were followed by genetic testing using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The results showed that 20 of the 30 samples were positive for Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli isolates from chicken liver samples showed resistance to 30 µg tetracycline antibiotics by 85% (17 of 20 samples) Researchers also compared with other antibiotics, the highest resistance to ampicillin 10 µg was 90% (18 out of 20 samples), gentamicin resistance was 10 µg by 50% (10 of 20 samples) and 30 µg chloramphenicol antibiotic resistance by 30% (6 of 20 samples). The isolates that were resistant to tetracycline were confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction to detect the tetA gene with the final product in the form of a band with a length of 210 bp. Bacterial isolates resistant to Tetracycline antibiotics did not always show TetA gene expression in the PCR test. Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance; Escherichia coli; Market; TetA gene   Abstrak Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui resistansi beberapa antibiotik secara fenotip dan secara genotip mendeteksi gen tetA dari sampel hati ayam broiler di pasar Dukuh Kupang Surabaya. Sebanyak 30 sampel diambil kemudian dipreparasi secara aseptis dan steril. Isolasi pada media Eosin Methilen Blue Agar (EMBA), selanjutnya dilakukan pemeriksaan mikroskopis menggunakan pewarnaan gram dan uji biokimiawi Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSIA), Sulfide Indol Motility (SIM), Methyl Red (MR), Voges Prouskauers (VP), dan Simons Citrat Agar (SCA). Koloni Escherichia coli yang teridentifikasi dilakukan uji sensitifitas antibiotik dengan metode Kirby bauer, selanjutnya isolat yang terbukti resistan terhadap antibiotik tetrasiklin dilanjutkan pemeriksaan genetik dengan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 20 dari 30 sampel positif Escherichia coli. Isolat Escherichia coli asal sampel hati ayam menunjukkan resistansi terhadap antibiotik Tetrasiklin 30 µg sebesar 85 % (17 dari 20 sampel) Peneliti juga melakukan perbandingan dengan antibiotik lainnya, resistensi tertinggi pada antibiotik ampisilin 10 µg sebesar 90 % (18 dari 20 sampel), resistensi gentamisin 10 µg sebesar 50 % (10 dari 20 sampel) dan resistensi antibiotik kloramfenikol 30 µg sebesar 30 % (6 dari 20 sampel). Isolat yang resisten terhadap tetrasiklin dikonfirmasi dengan Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk mendeteksi gen tetA dengan produk akhir berupa band dengan panjang 210 bp. Isolat bakteri yang resistan terhadap antibiotik Tetrasiklin tidak selalu menunjukkan ekspresi gen tetA pada uji PCR. Kata kunci: Escherichia coli; Gen TetA; Pasar; Resistansi Antibiotik.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 202-211
Arini Fousty Badri ◽  
Novie Juleanti ◽  
Risfidian Mohadi ◽  
Mardiyanto Mardiyanto ◽  
Aldes Lesbani

2022 ◽  
Thorben Gwydion Jaik ◽  
Betty Ciubini ◽  
Francesca Frascella ◽  
Ulrich Jonas

Until now, only limited experimental knowledge and sparse theoretical treatment about the mechanisms of thermochromism of azo dyes in solution has been available. Especially the coupling of thermoresponsiveness of polymers...

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 163-172
Fia Rahmatul Khair ◽  
Erina Erina ◽  
Sugito Sugito ◽  
M. Daud AK

Salmonellosis merupakan penyakit enterik yang disebabkan oleh berbagai jenis spesies Salmonella spp . Penelitian inibertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi spesies Salmonella spp pada kloaka kura-kura ambon (Cuoraamboinensis). Koleksi sampel dilakukan pada lima belas ekor kura-kura ambon yang berada di kota Banda Aceh dansebagian Aceh Besar. Penelitian ini merupakan observasi lapangan dan eksperimental laboratorium berdasarkanmetode Carter. Swab kloaka kura-kura ambon ditanam dalam media Selenite Cystine Broth (SCB) dan diinkubasikanselama 24 jam suhu 37⁰C, jika terjadi perubahan warna menjadi orange dilanjutkan penanaman pada media SalmonellaShigella Agar (SSA). Koloni yang menunjukkan karakteristik Salmonella sp diamati warna, elevasi, ukuran, dan tepisecara makroskopik. Pewarnaan Gram dilakukan untuk pengamatan secara mikroskopis dan pengelompokan bakteri.Proses identifikasi Salmonella spp dilakukan dengan penanaman dalam media Indol, Methyl Red, Voges Proskauer,Sulfide Indole Motility (SIM), Simmons Citrate Agar (SCA), Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSIA), uji biokimia (glukosa, sukrosa,laktosa, manitol, dan arabinosa). Penelitian ini dianalisis secara deskriptif dan disajikan dalam bentuk tabel dangambar. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada lima belas sampel swab kloaka kura-kura ambon (100%) positifSalmonella yang terdiri atas Salmonella bongori, Salmonella arizonae, Salmonella diarizonae, dan Salmonella indica.Oleh karena itu, dapat disimpulkan bahwa Salmonella bongori, Salmonella arizonae, Salmonella diarizonae, danSalmonella indica dapat diisolasi dari kloaka kura-kura ambon

Microbiology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 167 (12) ◽  
Feixue Liu ◽  
Dinesh Singh Shah ◽  
Laszlo Csetenyi ◽  
Geoffrey Michael Gadd

Biomineralization is a ubiquitous process in organisms to produce biominerals, and a wide range of metallic nanoscale minerals can be produced as a consequence of the interactions of micro-organisms with metals and minerals. Copper-bearing nanoparticles produced by biomineralization mechanisms have a variety of applications due to their remarkable catalytic efficiency, antibacterial properties and low production cost. In this study, we demonstrate the biotechnological potential of copper carbonate nanoparticles (CuNPs) synthesized using a carbonate-enriched biomass-free ureolytic fungal spent culture supernatant. The efficiency of the CuNPs in pollutant remediation was investigated using a dye (methyl red) and a toxic metal oxyanion, chromate Cr(VI). The biogenic CuNPs exhibited excellent catalytic properties in a Fenton-like reaction to degrade methyl red, and efficiently removed Cr(VI) from solution due to both adsorption and reduction of Cr(VI). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) identified the oxidation of reducing Cu species of the CuNPs during the reaction with Cr(VI). This work shows that urease-positive fungi can play an important role not only in the biorecovery of metals through the production of insoluble nanoscale carbonates, but also provides novel and simple strategies for the preparation of sustainable nanomineral products with catalytic properties applicable to the bioremediation of organic and metallic pollutants, solely and in mixtures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
S. Rajeshkumar ◽  
M. Vanaja ◽  
Arunachalam Kalirajan

The present investigation deals with the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles in an ecofriendly manner using leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata. Green-synthesized copper nanoparticles were studied for their antibacterial, antioxidant, and catalytic activity. The leaves were powdered and extracted with water and added to copper sulphate solution. The reduction of copper ions to nanoparticles was preliminarily identified by the color change of the reaction mixture. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by using a UV-Vis Spectrophotometer at a different wavelength with different time intervals. Functional groups available on the surface of the nanoparticle were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed six distinct intense peaks indicating the crystalline nature of synthesized copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrated polydispersed nanoparticles formed in the reaction process. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated by an agar well diffusion assay against pathogenic bacteria. The antioxidant activity showed the excellent reduction of DPPH free radicals by nanoparticles. These results confirmed that copper nanoparticles serve as an alternative therapeutic agent over conventional drugs. Moreover, copper nanoparticles were also used to study the effect on the dye degradation process of methyl red and eosin dyes. Copper nanoparticles effectively remove the dyes with high efficiency up to 92% and 95% of methyl red and eosin dye, respectively.

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