Context: The automobile industry has included active and passive safety. Active safety incorporates elements to avoid crashes and collisions. Some elements are ABS brakes and stabilization bars, among others. On the other hand, passive safety avoids or minimizes damage to the occupants in the event of an accident. Some passive safety features include seat belts and front and curtain airbags for the driver and other occupants.
Method: In this research work, we propose a new category called Extraordinary Passive Safety (XPS). A model of a sensor network was designed to inspect the conditions inside the car to detect fire, smoke, gases, and extreme temperatures. The sensors send data to a device (DXPS) capable of receiving and storing the data.
Results: Each sensor collects data and sends it to the DXPS every period. The sensor sends 0s while there is no risk, and 1s when it detects a risk. When the DXPS receives a 1, the pattern is evaluated, and the risk is identified. Since there are several sensors, the reading pattern is a set of 0s (000000). When a pattern with one or more 1s (000100, 010101) is received, the DXPS can send an alert or activate a device.
Conclusions: The proposed solution could save the lives of children left in the car or people trapped when the car catches fire. As future work, it is intended to define the devices to avoid or minimize damage to the occupants such as oxygen supply, gas extraction, regulating the temperature, among others.
Bezpieczeństwo pasażerów w transporcie szynowym jest jednym z najważniejszych aspektów konstrukcji pojazdów szynowych. Utrzymanie niskich statystyk śmiertelności tej gałęzi transportu wymaga rozwoju systemów transportowych, ale także dalszego rozwoju materiałów i systemów stosowanych w konstrukcji pojazdów, które poruszają się po torach Polski i Świata. W niniejszym artykule przedstawione zostały zagadnienia bezpieczeństwa pasywnego na podstawie konstrukcji lekkiego pojazdu szynowego typu 227M.
One of the priorities of the National Economic Strategy of Ukraine for the Period up to 2030 is the development of the transport sector, in particular railway vehicle renewal, the introduction of high-speed railway passenger transport, and railway traffic safety improvement. The home motor-car trains must be renewed in compliance with new home standards harmonized with European ones, among which one should mention the Ukrainian State Standard DSTU EN 15227, which specifies the passive safety of a passenger train in its emergency collisions with different obstacles. New car designs must provide not only effective up-to-date braking systems to prevent emergency collisions, but also passive safety systems with energy-absorbing devices. The main purpose of these devices is to reduce the longitudinal forces in the intercar connections and the car accelerations to an acceptable level for the three collision scenarios specified in the DSTU EN 15227. The Department of Statistical Dynamics and Multidimensional Mechanical Systems Dynamics, Institute of Technical Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the State Space Agency of Ukraine, developed a passive protection concept for home high-speed passenger trains in emergency collisions by the DSTU EN 15227 scenarios, proposals on the passive protection of a motor-car train head car, and honeycomb designs of lower- and upper-level energy-absorbing devices (EAD 1 and UL EAD, respectively), which are integrated into the head car front part and serve to damp the major part of the impact energy in front collisions with obstacles. This paper considers DSTU EN 15227 Scenario 3: a collision of a reference motor-car train at a speed of 110 km/h at a railway crossing with a large 15 t road vehicle, which is simulated as a large-size deformable obstacle (LSDO). The aim of the paper is to determine the force characteristic of the interaction of energy-absorbing devices mounted on the head car front part with a large road vehicle in a collision to assess the compliance of the proposed passive protection with the normative requirements. Finite-element models were constructed to analyze the plastic deformation of the elements of the EAD 1 – LSDO, UL EAD – LSDO, and EAD 1 – UL EAD –LSDO systems in a collision with account for geometric and physical nonlinearities, steel dynamic hardening as a function of the impact speed, and varying contact interaction between the elements of the systems considered. The studies conducted made it possible to determine the force characteristics of energy-absorbing device – obstacle interaction and the total characteristic of the contact force between two lower-level devices and two upper-level ones as a function of the obstacle center of mass displacement in a collision. The proposed mathematical models and the calculated force characteristics may be used in the study of the dynamics of a reference motor-car train – large road vehicle collision with the aim to assess the compliance of the passive protection of the home head car under design with the DSTU EN 15227 requirements.
The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a liquid sodium-cooled nuclear reactor designed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy. In July 1986, a series of unprotected transients were performed to demonstrate the passive safety of FFTF. Among these, a total of 13 loss-of-flow-without scram (LOFWOS) tests were conducted to confirm the liquid metal reactor safety margins, provide data for computer code validation, and demonstrate the inherent and passive safety benefits of specific design features. In our preliminary work, we have performed relatively coarse modeling of the FFTF. To better predict the transient behavior of FFTF LOFWOS test #13, we modeled it using a more refined thermal-hydraulics model. In this paper, we simulate FFTF LOFWOS test #13 with the system safety analysis code SAC-3D according to the benchmark specifications provided by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The simulation range includes the primary and secondary circuits. The reactor core was modeled by the built-in 3D neutronics calculation module and the parallel-channel thermal-hydraulics calculation module. To better predict the reactivity feedback introduced by coolant level variations within the GEMs, a real-time macro cross-section homogenization processing module was developed. The steady-state power distribution was calculated as the transient simulation initial boundary conditions. In general, both the steady-state calculation results and the whole-plant transient behavior predictions are in good agreement with the measured data. The relatively large deviations in transient simulation occur in the outlet temperature predictions of the PIOTA in row 6. It can be preliminarily explained by the reason for neglecting the heat transfer between channels in this model.
In recent years, as the rapid growth of the number of electric vehicles, people have more and more requirements on the safety performance of vehicles. However, compared with fuel vehicles, the structure of electric vehicles has its own particularity which makes the safety design of body structure more difficult. Thus, improving the passive safety of electric vehicles and protecting the passengers from injury in the collision to the greatest extent have become important issues for the automotive industry. This paper simulates the frontal offset impact simulation analysis of a certain type of SUV, and analyzes the safety performance of the vehicle from the perspective of member protection. The front side member structure and impact energy absorption which affect the passive safety of the whole vehicle are optimized and improved. The finite element model of the whole vehicle is rebuilt, and the frontal offset impact simulation test is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the optimization scheme.
The analysis aimed to assess the passive safety of supporting masts for road signs in accordance with EN 12767. Experimental tests were carried out based on the requirements of the standard for the smallest and the largest constructions within the product family. Numerical models of crash tests were prepared for whole product family using the Finite Element Method in the LS-Dyna environment. Based on the comparison of the experimental tests and the numerical calculations, the usefulness of the numerical model for estimating the actual value of the Acceleration Severity Index (ASI) and the Theoretical Head Impact Velocity (THIV) was assessed. With the use of these relationships the values of ASI and THIV for masts not tested experimentally were estimated. It was confirmed that the analyzed masts met the requirements for the passive safety of structures set out in the standard EN 12767. It was possible since as a result of the impact, the mast column detached from the base, allowing the vehicle to continue moving. The behavior of the masts was primarily influenced by the destruction of the safety connectors. The paper presents the most important elements from the point of view of designing such solutions.
We designed and manufactured a pneumatic-driven robotic passive gait training system (PRPGTS), providing the functions of body-weight support, postural support, and gait orthosis for patients who suffer from weakened lower limbs. The PRPGTS was designed as a soft-joint gait training rehabilitation system. The soft joints provide passive safety for patients. The PRPGTS features three subsystems: a pneumatic body weight support system, a pneumatic postural support system, and a pneumatic gait orthosis system. The dynamic behavior of these three subsystems are all involved in the PRPGTS, causing an extremely complicated dynamic behavior; therefore, this paper applies five individual interval type-2 fuzzy sliding controllers (IT2FSC) to compensate for the system uncertainties and disturbances in the PRGTS. The IT2FSCs can provide accurate and correct positional trajectories under passive safety protection. The feasibility of weight reduction and gait training with the PRPGTS using the IT2FSCs is demonstrated with a healthy person, and the experimental results show that the PRPGTS is stable and provides a high-trajectory tracking performance.