legal certainty
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
H. M Umar

Marriage in Indonesia has been regulated in laws and regulations that apply to all Indonesian people, namely the Marriage Law Number 1 of 1974.[1] In this Law as stated in Article 2 which reads that marriage is only valid, if it is carried out according to each religion and belief, then each marriage is recorded based on the applicable laws and regulations. The Jambi Religious Court as the executor of judicial power in the Jambi Religious High Court area has received 2 (two)cases isbat/ marriage ratifications for non-Muslim husbands and wives to become converts to get legal certainty from marriage before embracing Islam, namely the case with Number 14/Pdt.P /2017/PA Jmb on 01 February 2017 and the case with Number 64/Pdt.P/2019/PA Jmb on 09 August 2019. The reason for converting husbands and wives to submit isbat/ marriage ratification is because marriage before embracing Islam does not have a certificate marriage from the Civil Registry Office. So that the husband and wife of the converts filed a case isbat/ marriage ratification to the Jambi Religious Court to ask for the validity of their marriage. The Jambi Religious Court judge who tried the case, in his decision, granted the request and declared the marriage of a husband and wife to be converts to Islam without advocating remarriage. Even though the marital status of a non-Muslim husband and wife when they converted to Islam, the scholars were still debating until they were divided into two groups.

Satya Wirawan ◽  

One of the state apparatuses that are given the task and authority to carry out law enforcement is the Prosecutor. In carrying out its duties and functions, the prosecutor is organized in an Institution called the Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Indonesia or can be called the Prosecutor's Office. The main task of the Prosecutor's Office carried out by the Prosecutor is to prosecute criminal cases. In carrying out the task of prosecution, the Prosecutor is authorized to determine whether or not a case can be brought to court and what article will becharged. The authority of the Prosecutor in resolving criminal cases outside the court that makes the author more tendentious to conduct research. The problem with this research is 1). Bhow are the obstacles to solving criminal cases outside the court by the Prosecutor's Office? 2). Is the settlement of cases outside the Court conducted by the Prosecutor's Office in accordance with the values of justice? By using the type of normative juridical research it is known that: The Authority of the Prosecutor in the settlement of criminal cases outside the Court can realize the goal of law enforcement, namely justice, legal certainty and usefulness for the community. The settlement of criminal cases outside the court can also realize the ideals of a fast, simple and cheap judiciary and optimize the participation of the community in law enforcement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-05
Ravi Verdira ◽  
Susanto ◽  
Siti Hamidah Djumikasih

This article discusses the urgency of reformulation of the function of the Board of Directors as an organ of persero company in carrying out the company's business activities to obtain profits that are further deposited to the state as non-tax state revenues. This research is normative research. The results of this study show that the transfer and guarantee actions carried out by Directors against persero's assets are one form of legally valid management as long as it is in accordance with the laws and regulations, its basic budget and the interests of persero. In order to achieve legal certainty, it is necessary to reformulate the function of the Board of Directors of Persero in the laws and regulations into the function of management, ownership and representing persero both in and in court as long as it is in accordance with the laws and/or articles of association of Persero.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 293
Erni Dwita Silambi ◽  
Pangerang Moenta ◽  
Farida Patittingi ◽  
Nur Azisa

Customary law is an unwritten rule that lives in the customary community of an area and will continue to live as long as the community still fulfils the customary law that was passed on to them from their ancestors before them. Settlement in criminal cases through customary law that produces results is a form of legal certainty. This study aims to determine the ideal concept in resolving criminal cases through customary courts in Merauke Papua. The method used in this study is a combination of normative legal research and empirical legal research with the reason that the author wants to examine the norms related to the problem of resolving customary criminal cases and seek direct information on the implementation of customary justice in Merauke Regency which is presented descriptively. recognition of customary courts must be stated in writing in the law on judicial power so that this institution has a clear legal basis and its decisions can be recognized so that it does not need to be tried again through national courts, criminal threats under five years must be resolved through customary courts and are final decisions   Received: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 25 October 2021 / Published: 3 January 2022

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
pp. 106-121
Prince Obiri-Korang

In ’n regstelsel waar partye by internasionale kontrakte die outonomie gelaat word om die reg van toepassing op hulle kontrak te kies, word algemeen verwag dat die reg wat hulle kies die reg van ’n staat is. Die keuse van enige soort buitestaatlike reg as die reg van toepassing op kommersiële kontrakte word gewoonlik nie deur die howe toegelaat nie. Indien ’n bepaalde internasionale kontrak ’n arbitrasieklousule bevat, verskil die posisie. Daar is presedente wat toon dat arbitrasie-tribunale bereid is om regskeuses in internasionale kontrakte te handhaaf en toe te pas, ongeag die aard van die gekose reg, hetsy dit staatlik, of buitestaatlik is. Die vraag wat in hierdie verband ontstaan, is waarom howe arbitrasietoekennings sonder voorbehoud afdwing, selfs wanneer ’n nie-staatlike reg deur die tribunaal toegepas is om tot die beslissing te kom wat nou afgedwing moet word, maar terselfdertyd die toepassing van dieselfde buitestaatlike reg verwerp in sake wat direk voor hulle kom. In hierdie artikel argumenteer die outeur dat howe die keuse deur die partye van buitestaatlike reg behoort te aanvaar op grond van die beginsel van partyoutonomie. Die outonomiebeginsel speel ’n rol in alle kommersiële kontrakte. In die internasionale kontraktereg word partyoutonomie vandag beskou as die belangrikste verbindingsfaktor vir die vasstelling van die reg. Die erkenning van die keuse van buitestaatlike reg bied aan partye die geleentheid om toepaslike regsreëls te kies vir die hantering van spesifieke juridiese uitdagings wat verband hou met hul kontrak. Partye sal baat by die gevolglike regsekerheid en voorspelbaarheid wat die reg betref wat van toepassing is op die kontrak. Dit sal sodoende help om lang en duur geskille te voorkom wat bloot handel oor welke reg van toepassing sou wees. Die outeur bespreek welke kategorieë van buitestaatlike reg gekies behoort te kan word om internasionale kontrakte te beheers.

2022 ◽  
pp. 40-51
Muhammad Abdullah Fazi

This study seeks to understand and explain the technological and regulatory challenges of blockchain technology particularly in execution mechanism of smart contracts as compared to regular contracts and to explore legal implication attached the blockchain technology. While evaluating the early days of regulatory framework of blockchain, the current study provides a focused review of relevant studies to identify the legal challenges arising from the application of AI in smart contracts and to find solutions to overcome these challenges. The study has emphasized certain areas related to the blockchain such as AI application and execution of smart contracts and finds that that there is currently a lack of legal certainty as to how various requirements of a valid contract would be satisfied. Hence, it highlights the need of regulation without disrupting the key yet essential features of blockchain. Keywords: Blockchain, Smart contract, AI, Framework, Legislation, Cryptocurrency

R Sugiharto ◽  

This study discusses the principle of legality in criminal law from the perspective of fair law enforcement. The formulation of the problem put forward is how to regulate the principle of legality in current criminal law and how the principle of legality in criminal law is currently from the perspective of law enforcement that is just. The conclusion of this study is that the regulation of the principle of legality in criminal law is currently regulated in Article 1 paragraph (1) of the Criminal Code which is the principle of formal legality, which requires an act committed to be determined as a criminal act if it is first stated in the legislation that valid at the time the act was committed, from the perspective of fair law enforcement, the legality principle in criminal law currently cannot be used as a basis for carrying out fair law enforcement, because in this legality principle it implies that an act is qualified as a mere criminal act. only based on legislation (written legal regulations). In the opinion of the author, that law enforcement that adheres to the principle of legality can only achieve legal certainty, but has not been able to realize justice. Justice should be realized through law enforcement which is not just formal justice according to the formulation of the law, but also substantial justice, namely justice that is truly in accordance with the sense of community justice based on the living law.

Al-Qadha ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 160-174
Azmil Fauzi Fariska

This research was motivated by the decision of the Tembilahan Religious Court judges who decided the joint property case in which the judge decided the Plaintiff (husband) got 1/4 while the Defendant (wife) got 3/4 of the shared property. However, Article 97 in the Compilation of Islamic Law states that: "Widows or widowers are each entitled to half of the joint property as long as it is not stipulated otherwise in the marriage agreement." This research is in the form of library research using case No.0233/Pdt.G/2018/PA.Tbh, as the primary reference, while the secondary material in this paper consists of laws and regulations related to the object of the research decision No. 0233/Pdt.G/2018/PA.Tbh as well as books, journals, scientific works related to the object of research. The author's data collection technique uses interview techniques and study documents or library materials. The results of the verdict research are in accordance with the judge in deciding the case based on Legal Certainty (legal certainty) and Legal Justice (legal justice), legal certainty is what has been outlined by the laws and regulations, Compilation of Islamic Law, like this case according to legal certainty then the distribution it is the wife gets 1/2 and the husband also gets 1/2 then if only this which is applied rigidly in the case will reduce the values of justice itself, thus the judge in determining the joint property case uses Legal Justice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 137-164
Nursalam Rahmatullah

Marginalization of women in marriage is an issue that always invites debate among Islamic law thinkers, given the ever-changing social conditions of society so that the laws and regulations governing marital problems underwent the first amendment in 2019. This paper focuses on how the position of women in unregistered marriages and child marriages in Islamic law perspective. With a normative approach and legal sociology, this paper confirms a conclusion that the position of women in unregistered marriages and child marriages is very vulnerable to obtaining legal certainty and justice. Even though it is said that child marriage in under age, the original law is permissible according to Islamic law, but it does not mean that it is absolutely permissible for all women in all circumstances. Because in some women there are several conditions that indicate that it is better for her not to marry at an early age. Likewise, unregistered marriages are legally valid according to Islamic law because they have fulfilled the requirements and pillars of marriage, but have not received recognition from the state which results in legal uncertainty for the status of marriage and children born from the marriage. Therefore, Indonesia as a state of law, regulates matters relating to this matter. Namely by requiring the registring of every marriage held and amending the articles of legislation governing the provisions of the age of marriage in order to ensure legal protection and benefit for the parties bound in a marriage bond, especially for wives and children born from marriages. Abstrak Marginalisasi perempuan dalam perkawinan merupakan isu yang selalu mengundang perdebatan di kalangan pemikir hukum Islam, mengingat kondisi sosial masyarakat yang selalu berubah sehingga peraturan perundang-undangan yang mengatur masalah perkawinan mengalami amandemen pertama pada tahun 2019.  Tulisan ini fokus pada bagaimana kedudukan perempuan dalam nikah sirri dan nikah anak di bawah usia dalam perspektif hukum Islam. Dengan pendekatan normativitas dan sosiologi hukum tulisan ini menegaskan suatu kesimpulan bahwa kedudukan perempuan dalam perkawinan sirri dan perkawinan anak di bawah usia sangatlah rentan untuk memperoleh kepastian dan keadilan hukum. Sekalipun dikatakan bahwa perkawinan anak di bawah usia, hukum asalnya diperbolehkan menurut syariat Islam, tetapi tidak berarti ia di bolehkan secara mutlak bagi semua perempuan dalam semua keadaan. Sebab pada sebagian perempuan terdapat beberapa kondisi yang menunjukkan bahwa lebih baik ia tidak menikah pada usia dini. Begitupun dengan nikah sirri yang hukumnya sah menurut syariat Islam karena telah memenuhi syarat-syarat dan rukun nikah, akan tetapi tidak memperoleh pengakuan dari negara yang mengakibatkan ketidakpastian hukum bagi status perkawinan dan anak yang lahir dari perkawinan tersebut. Oleh karenanya Indonesia sebagai negara hukum, mengatur hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan hal ini. Yaitu dengan mengharuskan pencatatan terhadap setiap perkawinan yang diselenggarakan serta mengamandemen pasal-pasal peraturan perundang-undangan yang mengatur tentang ketentuan umur perkawinan guna menjamin perlindungan hukum dan kemaslahatan bagi pihak-pihak yang terikat dalam suatu ikatan perkawinan, khususnya bagi istri dan anak yang lahir dari perkawinan tersebut.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 95-108
Puspita Putri Ramadhani ◽  
Hasbir Paserangi ◽  
Wiwie Heryani

Default is an omission or negligence, breaking a promise, or violating what has been agreed. One example of an engagement default is case number: 41/Pdt.G/2016/PN.PA. This case began with an agreement between Indoria Hi. The Mpasu brothers were represented by Alfian Chaniago as the authority holder with Lang Hartoyo and Rizal Tjahyadi through a letter of the agreement made by notary XX. Indoria Hi. The Mpasu brothers were unwilling to fulfill the agreement's contents and decided to cancel the agreement unilaterally because they felt they were never involved in the agreement. Based on the case above, a further question arises about how to guarantee legal certainty for authentic deeds and the consequences of the legal deed of agreement that does not follow the procedure. This study is normative legal research, which examines aspects of written law. The approach to the problem in this study is normative juridical, that is, it is based on applicable laws and regulations. In conclusion, the binding deed of the agreement made before a notary does not always go as expected. An authentic deed that does not meet formal requirements is considered imperfect, so it does not have an element of legal certainty. The legal consequence of the deed of the agreement under the power of attorney to sell that is not following the procedure is that the agreement will be null and void.

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