In this paper, the regioselective reactions of kaolinite and methoxy-modified kaolinite (MeO-Kaol), methanol-expanded kaolinite, with octadecyltrimethylammonium salts are compared. This study mainly concerns the reactions of kaolinite or MeO-Kaol with octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C18TAC) in methanol and the subsequent exhaustive washing of the resultant products with ethanol. X-ray diffraction patterns of the products reveal no intercalation of C18TAC between pristine kaolinite layers. Additionally, intercalation and subsequent deintercalation of C18TAC proceed in the product using MeO-Kaol. In the Fourier-transform infrared spectra, the intensities of CH2 stretching bands of the product prepared using MeO-Kaol drastically increase compared to those using kaolinite. In addition, CH2 stretching bands of the product using kaolinite are hardly observed without enlarging the spectrum. The product using MeO-Kaol also displays mass loss in the range of 200–300 °C in the thermogravimetric curve and a nitrogen content with 0.15 mass% estimated using the CHN analysis. These results therefore demonstrate an increase in the available reactive edges in the layered crystal material following an expansion of the stacked layers.
High-resolution infrared spectra of comet C/2014 Q2 Lovejoy were acquired with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory on two post-perihelion dates (UT 2015 February 2 and 3). H2O was measured simultaneously with CO, CH3OH, H2CO, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3 on both dates, and rotational temperatures, production rates, relative abundances, H2O ortho-to-para ratios, and spatial distributions in the coma were determined. The first detection of C2H4 in a comet from ground-based observations is reported. Abundances relative to H2O for all species were found to be in the typical range compared with values for other comets in the overall population to date. There is evidence of variability in rotational temperatures and production rates on timescales that are small compared with the rotational period of the comet. Spatial distributions of volatiles in the coma suggest complex outgassing behavior. CH3OH, HCN, C2H6, and CH4 spatial distributions in the coma are consistent with direct release from associated ices in the nucleus and are peaked in a more sunward direction compared with co-measured dust. H2O spatial profiles are clearly distinct from these other four species, likely due to a sizable coma contribution from icy grain sublimation. Spatial distributions for C2H2, H2CO, and NH3 suggest substantial contributions from extended coma sources, providing further evidence for distinct origins and associations for these species in comets. CO shows a different spatial distribution compared with other volatiles, consistent with jet activity from discrete nucleus ice sources.
Microplastics in the environment are an emerging concern due to impacts on human and environmental health. In addition to direct effects on biota, microplastics influence the fate and distribution of...
This research aimed to evaluate the technological potential of genipap flour (Genipa americana L.) in freeze drying and oven drying processes. The ripened genipap fruits were harvested and submitted to pulp extraction, which after dehydration in an oven and freeze drying, were crushed to obtain the flours. When analyzed by X-ray diffraction, the flours were amorphous, with indicative of starch. In addition, the presence of water, aromatics and primary alcohols was observed by infrared spectra (FTIR). In micrograph (SEM) FPJDE was less porous and starches were identified. For thermogravimetry (TGA) similar thermal events occurred, it was important to verify the thermal behavior, humidity and ash present in the food. In the mineral composition, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, phosphorus, copper, and calcium were present, the flours as a source of manganese and with a high content of iron, potassium, copper and magnesium. It was concluded that the flours present a quantity of nutrients and favorable technological characteristics such as: thermal stability, humidity below that established by law for the manufacture and production of food.
The still-advancing soil degradation and the related losses of soil organic carbon stocks due to the limited inflow of organic residues in agro-ecosystems encourage more and more soil protection. Establishing meadow ecosystems is one of the key methods of agricultural land use preventing losses of organic carbon in soils. Based on the research on the properties of humic acids, it is possible to determine the advancement of the processes of transformation and decomposition of soil organic matter. The obtained results may allow for the development of a soil protection strategy and more effective sequestration of organic carbon. Therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the properties of humic acids defining the quality of organic matter of meadow soils irrigated for 150 years with the slope-and-flooding system. The research was performed based on the soils (Albic Brunic Arenosol) sampled from Europe’s unique complex of permanent irrigated grasslands (the same irrigation management for 150 years), applying the slope-and-flooding system: the Czerskie Meadows. The soil samples were assayed for the content of total organic carbon (TOC) and the particle size distribution. HAs were extracted with the Schnitzer method and analysed for the elemental composition, spectrometric parameters in the UV-VIS (ultraviolet-visible) range, hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties and the infrared spectra. The research results showed that the HAs properties depend on the depth and the distance from the irrigation ditch. The HAs of soils sampled from the depth of 0–10 cm were identified with a lower “degree of maturity” as compared with the HAs of soils sampled from the depth of 20–30 cm, reflected by the values of atomic ratios (H/C, O/C, O/H), absorbance coefficients, and the FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra. The mean values of the H/C ratio in the HAs molecules of soils sampled from the depth of 20–30 cm were lower by 8.2% than those from the depth of 0–10 cm. The mean values of the absorbance coefficient A4/6 in the HAs molecules of soils sampled from the depth of 20–30 cm were lower by 9.6% than in the HAs molecules of soils sampled from the depth of 0–10 cm. The HAs molecules of the soils sampled 25 m from the irrigation ditch were identified with a higher degree of humification, as compared with the HAs of the soils sampled 5 m from the irrigation ditch. The results identified that humic acids produced in the many-year irrigated sandy soils were identified with a high degree of humification, which proves the relative stability of the soil’s organic matter. It confirms the importance of meadow soils for the carbon sequestration process. It should also be emphasized that the research area is interesting, although hardly described in terms of organic matter properties. Further and more detailed applicable research is planned, e.g., monitoring of total organic carbon content and comparing the properties of irrigated and non-irrigated meadow soils. Continuity of research is necessary to assess the direction of the soil organic matter transformation in such a unique ecosystem. The obtained results may allow for the development of, inter alia, models of agricultural practices that increase carbon sequestration in soils. In the long term, this will allow for greater environmental benefits and, thus, also increased financial benefits.