The interplay between biochemical characteristics and the generation of volatile compounds in 11 type II sourdough fermented by single strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was studied. Samples were collected at 0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24h for analyses of microbial growth, pH, titratable acidity and CO2 production. During the first 12h, the LABs entered the stationary phase, and the formation of organic and carboxyl acids, alcohols, and esters were observed. Although acidity is an important characteristic of sourdough, in this work increasing the acetic acid content decreased yeast growth and the CO2 retention capacity of the doughs. The main carbohydrate consumed by autochthonous yeast was influenced by the LAB added (homo-or heterofermentative), as observed by correlation analysis. Maltose and glucose showed a strong and negative correlation with the yeast cell density in the dough fermented by homo and heterofermentative LAB, respectively. Moreover, LAB had an important effect on the aromatic profile, being the alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, organics acids and esters mainly groups characterized. Altogether, 100 different volatile compounds were identified; however, each dough had a different volatile profile. This study shows, for the first time, the influence of a single strain of LAB on the characteristics of type II sourdough.
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the functioning of the photosystem II and quality of C. xanthocarpa seedlings cultivated under intermittent water deficit and shading levels and the influence of shading on recovery potential after suspension of the stress conditions. The seedlings were subjected to three levels of shading (0, 30, and 70%), six periods of evaluation (start: 0 days; 1st and 2nd photosynthesis zero: 1st and 2nd P0; 1st and 2nd recovery: 1stand 2nd REC; and END), and two forms of irrigation (control: periodically irrigated to maintain 70% substrate water retention capacity, and intermittent irrigation: suspension of irrigation). The plants subjected to intermittent irrigation conditions at 0% shading showed a reduction in water potential (Ψw) and potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and maximum efficiency of the photochemical process (Fv/F0) and an increase in basal quantum production of the non-photochemical processes (F0/Fm). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in the leaves than in the roots. The C. xanthocarpa is a species sensitive to water deficit but presents strategies to adapt to an environment under temporary water restriction, which are more temporary are most efficient under shading. The seedlings with water deficit at all levels of shading exhibited higher protective antioxidant activity and lower quality at 0% shading. The shading minimizes prevents permanent damage to the photosystem II and after the re-irrigation, the evaluated characteristics showed recovery with respect to the control group, except POD and SOD activities in the leaves.
Oat bran is a nutritionally rich ingredient, but it is underutilized in semi-moist and liquid foods due to technological issues such as high viscosity and sliminess. The aim of this work was to improve the technological properties of oat bran concentrate (OBC) in high-moisture food applications by enzymatic and mechanical treatments. OBC was hydrolyzed with β-glucanase (OBC-Hyd) and the water-soluble fraction (OBC-Sol) was separated. OBC, OBC-Hyd and OBC-Sol were further microfluidized at 5% dry matter content. Enzymatic treatment and microfluidization of OBC reduced the molecular weight (Mw) of β-glucan from 2748 kDa to 893 and 350 kDa, respectively, as well as the average particle size of OBC (3.4 and 35 times, respectively). Both treatments increased the extractability of the soluble compounds from the OBC samples (up to 80%) and affected their water retention capacity. OBC in suspension had very high viscosity (969 mPa·s) when heated, which decreased after both enzyme and microfluidization treatments. The colloidal stability of the OBC in suspension was improved, especially after microfluidization. The addition of OBC samples to acid milk gels decreased syneresis, improved the water holding capacity and softened the texture. The changes in the suspension and gel characteristics were linked with reduced β-glucan Mw and OBC particle size.
The control of runoff pollution is one of the advantages of low-impact development (LID) or sustainable drainage systems (SUDs), such as infiltration swales. Coastal areas may have characteristics that make the implementation of drainage systems difficult, such as sandy soils, shallow aquifers and flat terrains. The presence of contaminants was investigated through sampling and analysis of runoff, soil, and groundwater from a coastal region served by an infiltration swale located in southern Brazil. The swale proved to be very efficient in controlling the site’s urban drainage volumes even under intense tropical rainfall. Contaminants of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni were identified at concentrations above the Brazilian regulatory limit (BRL) in both runoff and groundwater. Soil concentrations were low and within the regulatory limits, except for Cd. The soil was predominantly sandy, with neutral pH and low ionic exchange capacity, characteristic of coastal regions and not very suitable for contaminant retention. Thus, this kind of structure requires improvements for its use in similar environments, such as the use of adsorbents in soil swale to increase its retention capacity.
AbstractIn breadmaking, dietary fibres are used to improve the nutritional quality of the final products; on the other hand, they may affect the physical and sensory properties. This work aimed to the evaluate, on pan breads, the effect of substituting 3 g of wheat flour with an equivalent amount of fibre rich ingredients: chestnut peels (CP) or wheat bran (WB), in comparison to a traditional wheat bread formulation (C). The effect of four levels of added water (54, 60, 66, 71 g/100 of flour) was also tested. The fibre content of CP (33%) and WB (42%) affected their water binding capacity and, consequently, the quality of the final loaves, according to the different water addition levels. In bread crumb, water content and water activity increased proportionally to the water addition levels, being instead in the crust also affected by the presence of fibres: lower water retention capacity was observed for CP, in comparison to WB and C. The loaf volume resulted higher for C in comparison to WB and CP, in relation to the larger dimensions of the crumb pores, probably due to the interfering effect of fibres during the development of the gluten network. Crumb hardness resulted higher for C at low water addition levels, being instead higher for CP at high water addition levels. CP showed a darker and redder colour, than both WB and C bread, for the presence of the brown pigments carried by chestnut peels. PCA analysis confirmed that more water is required for both the fibre-enriched breads to show characteristics similar to the control loaves.
Polyamines are small positively charged molecules in plants and play important functions in many biological processes under various environmental stresses. One of the most confounding problems relating to polyamines (PAs) in stresses is the lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying their function(s). Furthermore, a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the sub-cellular level, especially in tree plants under drought stress. Therefore, in this research, by simulating natural drought stress with polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmotic stress, the relationship between the levels of conjugated polyamines and the activity of H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane was elucidated with the roots of two plum (Prunus salicina L.) cultivars, which were different in drought tolerance, as experimental materials. Furthermore, free PA levels and the activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and transglutaminase (TGase), which were closely associated with the levels of free and conjugated PAs, were also detected. Results showed that under osmotic stress, the increases of the levels of non-covalently conjugated (non-CC) spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), covalently conjugated (CC) putrescine (Put) and Spd in the plasma membrane of drought-tolerant Ganli No. 5 were more significant than those of drought-sensitive Suli No. 3, indicating that these conjugated PAs might be involved in the tolerance of plum seedlings to stress. Furthermore, the conjugated PAs were closely correlated with plum seedling growth, water retention capacity, plasma membrane damage degree, and hydrogen (H+)-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. To get more complementary pieces of evidence, we subjected plum seedlings to combined treatments of PEG and exogenous PA (Spd and Spm), and an inhibitor of SAMDC [methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone), (MGBG)] or TGase (o-phenanthroline). These results collectively suggested that non-CC Spd and Spm, CC Put and Spd in plasma membrane might function in enhancing the tolerance of plum seedlings to osmotic stress by stabilizing membrane structure and therefore elevating H+-ATPase activity.
Biochar ozonization was previously shown to dramatically increase its cation exchange capacity, thus improving its nutrient retention capacity. The potential soil application of ozonized biochar warrants the need for a toxicity study that investigates its effects on microorganisms.
In the study presented here, we found that the filtrates collected from ozonized pine 400 biochar and ozonized rogue biochar did not have any inhibitory effects on the soil environmental bacteria Pseudomonas putida, even at high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 300 ppm. However, the growth of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 was inhibited by the ozonized biochar filtrates at DOC concentrations greater than 75 ppm. Further tests showed the presence of some potential inhibitory compounds (terephthalic acid and p-toluic acid) in the filtrate of non-ozonized pine 400 biochar; these compounds were greatly reduced upon wet-ozonization of the biochar material. Nutrient detection tests also showed that dry-ozonization of rogue biochar enhanced the availability of nitrate and phosphate in its filtrate, a property that may be desirable for soil application.
Ozonized biochar substances can support soil environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida growth, since ozonization detoxifies the potential inhibitory aromatic molecules.
Water-soluble green cathode binders are developed to increase the performance of 18650 type LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Using four basal substances to prepare the composite binders, it is indicated that the cathode with lithium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCLi)-polyacrylic acid/acrylate copolymer (type 306F) composite binder (Marked as Binder C) avoids the corrosion of aluminum substrate, and exhibits stronger adhesive force and better electrolyte adsorption capacity compared to other cathodes with PVDF binder and single aqueous binders. In particular, the electrochemical performance of the batteries with Binder C is also improved, initial specific capacity of 161.5 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and retention capacity of 88.9% at 1 C after 1200 cycles are obtained. The batteries with Binder C also exhibit enhanced high-temperature storage performance, there is 97.9% residual capacity when the fully charged batteries are stored in 60 °C for 14 days. The enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the chemical stability and bonding ability of polyacrylic acid/acrylate copolymer and better conduction at the liquid-solid interface caused by CMCLi. These results indicate that Binder C has promising application prospects in the NMC532 cathode, and also provide a reference for the green production of NMC-based LIBs.
The results of biological evaluation of awnless bromegrass varieties in diﬀerent agroclimatic zones of Yakutia are presented. A total of 143 collection varieties of awnless bromegrass from the genetic collection of VIR, other research institutions and local wild specimen were used in the research. The varieties studied are highly winter-hardy, the breeding specimen numbers to a greater extent. The drought tolerance of the varieties grown in the three zones of Yakutia is evaluated. A close relationship between winter hardiness and drought tolerance (water retention capacity) in awnless bromegrass was established. The correlation coeﬃcient averaged 0.74. The intensity of transpiration in awnless bromegrass cultivars is evaluated. Analysis of the daily dynamics of transpiration revealed that during the initial development phase of generative shoots (emergence into a tube), the minimum intensity of transpiration occurred in the evening and the maximum in the morning and afternoon hours. During the earing and ﬂowering phase, the intensity of transpiration depends on weather conditions. It has been established that high winter hardiness of awnless bromegrass accounts for high hay yield; low water-holding capacity accounts for winter hardiness and maximum hay yield in the conditions of Yakutia's cryolithozone. The correlation coeﬃcients between winter hardiness, drought tolerance parameters and hay yield at diﬀerent herbage levels averaged –0,85… –0,24. The standard variety of awnless bromegrass Kamalinsky 14 is stable and highly adapted to the conditions of Yakutia, and is recommended as a seed parent in the selection process for awnless bromegrass. When selecting varieties of awnless bromegrass, attention should be paid to varieties from local breeding, as well as populations of expeditionary collections across Yakutia, which have high seed yields.