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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112494
Phutthida Kongthitilerd ◽  
Thavaree Thilavech ◽  
Marisa Marnpae ◽  
Weiqiong Rong ◽  
Shaomian Yao ◽  

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 291
Florine Bornaque ◽  
Clément Philippe Delannoy ◽  
Emilie Courty ◽  
Nabil Rabhi ◽  
Charlène Carney ◽  

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with impaired insulin action and secretion. Although the heritability of type 2 diabetes is high, the environment, including blood components, could play a major role in the development of the disease. Amongst environmental effects, epitranscriptomic modifications have been recently shown to affect gene expression and glucose homeostasis. The epitranscriptome is characterized by reversible chemical changes in RNA, with one of the most prevalent being the m6A methylation of RNA. Since pancreatic β cells fine tune glucose levels and play a major role in type 2 diabetes physiopathology, we hypothesized that the environment, through variations in blood glucose or blood free fatty acid concentrations, could induce changes in m6A methylation of RNAs in pancreatic β cells. Here we observe a significant decrease in m6A methylation upon high glucose concentration, both in mice and human islets, associated with altered expression levels of m6A demethylases. In addition, the use of siRNA and/or specific inhibitors against selected m6A enzymes demonstrate that these enzymes modulate the expression of genes involved in pancreatic β-cell identity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our data suggest that environmental variations, such as glucose, control m6A methylation in pancreatic β cells, playing a key role in the control of gene expression and pancreatic β-cell functions. Our results highlight novel causes and new mechanisms potentially involved in type 2 diabetes physiopathology and may contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of this disease.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Yaser Albadr ◽  
Andrew Crowe ◽  
Rima Caccetta

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rising globally and this disease is proposed to be the next pandemic after COVID-19. Although the cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus is unknown, it is believed to involve a complex array of genetic defects that affect metabolic pathways which eventually lead to hyperglycaemia. This hyperglycaemia arises from an inability of the insulin-sensitive cells to sufficiently respond to the secreted insulin, which eventually results in the inadequate secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Several treatments, utilising a variety of mechanisms, are available for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, more medications are needed to assist with the optimal management of the different stages of the disease in patients of varying ages with the diverse combinations of other medications co-administered. Throughout modern history, some lead constituents from ancient medicinal plants have been investigated extensively and helped in developing synthetic antidiabetic drugs, such as metformin. Teucrium polium L. (Tp) is a herb that has a folk reputation for its antidiabetic potential. Previous studies indicate that Tp extracts significantly decrease blood glucose levels r and induce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells in vitro. Nonetheless, the constituent/s responsible for this action have not yet been elucidated. The effects appear to be, at least in part, attributable to the presence of selected flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, and rutin). This review aims to examine the reported glucose-lowering effect of the herb, with a keen focus on insulin secretion, specifically related to type 2 diabetes mellitus. An analysis of the contribution of the key constituent flavonoids of Tp extracts will also be discussed.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 332
Takanobu Takata ◽  
Akiko Sakasai-Sakai ◽  
Masayoshi Takeuchi

Background: The death of pancreatic islet β-cells (β-cells), which are the insulin-producing cells, promote the pathology in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (T1DM and T2DM), and they are protected by autophagy which is one of the mechanisms of cell survival. Recently, that some advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), such as methylglyoxial-derived AGEs and Nε-carboxymethyllysine, induced the death of β-cells were revealed. In contrast, we had reported AGEs derived from glyceraldehyde (GA, the metabolism intermediate of glucose and fructose) are considered to be toxic AGEs (TAGE) due to their cytotoxicity and role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. More, serum levels of TAGE are elevated in patients with T1 and T2DM, where they exert cytotoxicity. Aim: We researched the cytotoxicity of intracellular and extracellular TAGE in β-cells and the possibility that intracellular TAGE were associated with autophagy. Methods: 1.4E7 cells (a human β-cell line) were treated with GA, and analyzed viability, quantity of TAGE, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I, LC3-II, and p62. We also examined the viability of 1.4E7 cells treated with TAGE-modified bovine serum albumin, a model of TAGE in the blood. Results: Intracellular TAGE induced death of 1.4E7 cells, decrease of LC3-I, LC3-II, and p62. Extracellular TAGE didn’t show cytotoxicity in the physiological concentration. Conclusion: Intracellular TAGE induced death of β-cells more strongly than extracellular TAGE, and may suppress autophagy via reduction of LC3-I, LC3-II, and p62 to inhibit the degradation of them.

2022 ◽  
Ivar Noordstra ◽  
Cyntha M. van den Berg ◽  
Fransje W. J. Boot ◽  
Eugene A. Katrukha ◽  
Ka Lou Yu ◽  

Insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells is regulated by cortical complexes that are enriched at the sites of adhesion to extracellular matrix facing the vasculature. Many components of these complexes, including Bassoon, RIM, ELKS and liprins, are shared with neuronal synapses. Here, we show that insulin secretion sites also contain non-neuronal proteins LL5β and KANK1, which in migrating cells organize exocytotic machinery in the vicinity of integrin-based adhesions. Depletion of LL5β or focal adhesion disassembly triggered by myosin II inhibition perturbed the clustering of secretory complexes and attenuated the first wave of insulin release. While previous analyses in vitro and in neurons suggested that secretory machinery might assemble through liquid-liquid phase separation, analysis of endogenously labeled ELKS in pancreatic islets indicated that its dynamics is inconsistent with such a scenario. Instead, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single molecule imaging showed that ELKS turnover is driven by binding and unbinding to low-mobility scaffolds. Both the scaffold movements and ELKS exchange were stimulated by glucose treatment. Our findings help to explain how integrin-based adhesions control spatial organization of glucose-stimulated insulin release.

Hannah Al Ali ◽  
Alireza Daneshkhah ◽  
Abdesslam Boutayeb ◽  
Zindoga Mukandavire

Type 1 diabetes requires treatment with insulin injections and monitoring glucose levels in affected individuals. We explored the utility of two mathematical models in predicting glucose concentration levels in type 1 diabetic mice and determined disease pathways. We adapted two mathematical models, one with β-cells and the other with no β-cell component to determine their capability in predicting glucose concentration and determine type 1 diabetes pathways using published glucose concentration data for four groups of experimental mice. The groups of mice were numbered Mice Group 1–4, depending on the diabetes severity of each group, with severity increasing from group 1–4. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo method based on a Bayesian framework was used to fit the model to determine the best model structure. Akaike information criteria (AIC) and Bayesian information criteria (BIC) approaches were used to assess the best model structure for type 1 diabetes. In fitting the model with no β-cells to glucose level data, we varied insulin absorption rate and insulin clearance rate. However, the model with β-cells required more parameters to match the data and we fitted the β-cell glucose tolerance factor, whole body insulin clearance rate, glucose production rate, and glucose clearance rate. Fitting the models to the blood glucose concentration level gave the least difference in AIC of 1.2, and a difference in BIC of 0.12 for Mice Group 4. The estimated AIC and BIC values were highest for Mice Group 1 than all other mice groups. The models gave substantial differences in AIC and BIC values for Mice Groups 1–3 ranging from 2.10 to 4.05. Our results suggest that the model without β-cells provides a more suitable structure for modelling type 1 diabetes and predicting blood glucose concentration for hypoglycaemic episodes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 636
Agnieszka Kilanowska ◽  
Agnieszka Ziółkowska

Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease of complex etiology and pathogenesis. Hyperglycemia leads to many serious complications, but also directly initiates the process of β cell apoptosis. A potential strategy for the preservation of pancreatic β cells in diabetes may be to inhibit the implementation of pro-apoptotic pathways or to enhance the action of pancreatic protective factors. The Hippo signaling pathway is proposed and selected as a target to manipulate the activity of its core proteins in therapy-basic research. MST1 and LATS2, as major upstream signaling kinases of the Hippo pathway, are considered as target candidates for pharmacologically induced tissue regeneration and inhibition of apoptosis. Manipulating the activity of components of the Hippo pathway offers a wide range of possibilities, and thus is a potential tool in the treatment of diabetes and the regeneration of β cells. Therefore, it is important to fully understand the processes involved in apoptosis in diabetic states and completely characterize the role of this pathway in diabetes. Therapy consisting of slowing down or stopping the mechanisms of apoptosis may be an important direction of diabetes treatment in the future.

Pharmacia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-76
Alona Savych ◽  
Svitlana Marchyshyn ◽  
Liudmila Mosula ◽  
Oksana Bilyk ◽  
Ihor Humeniuk ◽  

Medicinal plants and their combinations due to the wide range of biologically active substances can influence on various links of the pathogenetic mechanism of development of DM type 2 and its complications. One of such combinations is an antidiabetic herbal mixture (Urticae folia, Rosae fructus, Myrtilli folia, Menthae folia and Taraxaci radices) with established hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, pancreatoprotective activity in previous pharmacological studies in vivo and in vitro and defined phytochemical composition. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify and establish the content of amino acids in the plant components of antidiabetic herbal mixture. The amino acids were separated by GC-MS method with pre-column derivatization. The calibration curves of twenty CRS of amino acids were linear (R2 > 0.98) over the range of 1–100 µg/mL, the LODs and the LOQs were in the range of 0.01–0.07 µg/mL and 0.02–0.20 µg/mL, respectively. The results of analysis showed that the predominant essential amino acid was L-proline in Taraxaci radices, Urticae folia, Rosae fructus and Menthae folia, its total content was 101.46 mg/g, 25.31 mg/g, 23.04 mg/g and 19.30 mg/g, respectively. In addition, it was established total content of essential amino acid – L-leucine that can stimulate insulin secretion in β-cells of the pancreas. Its total content was 58.51 mg/g in Taraxaci radices, 9.58 mg/g in Myrtilli folia, 4.68 mg/g in Rosae fructus, 2.99 mg/g in Urticae folia and 0.79 mg/g in Menthae folia. Chromatographic examination also revealed L-phenylalanine, an essential amino acid important for antidiabetic therapy that can increase insulin secretion, stimulate proliferation and neogenesis of β-cells of the pancreas and reduce insulin resistance. Its total content was 13.42 mg/g in Myrtilli folia, 2.23 mg/g in Rosae fructus, 1.478 mg/g in Urticae folia, 1.46 mg/g in Taraxaci radices and 0.52 mg/g in Menthae folia. This phytochemical study shows, which plant material forms the amino acid composition and content in the finished herbal mixture and due to which biologically active substances the antidiabetic activity of this phytocomposition is manifested.

Thais Sibioni Berti Bastos ◽  
Tárcio Teodoro Braga ◽  
Mariana Rodrigues Davanso

Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects people globally. Usually developed during childhood, T1D is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β-cells due to immune cell attack and the establishment of an inflammatory process. Objective: The study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D through its nuclear receptor and the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) through their lipid derivatives in T1D modulation. Both components exert anti-inflammatory activity and act directly on cells of the immune system, attenuating the destruction of insulin-producing cells. Furthermore, they lead to a better glycemic level, reducing the need for insulin and a normal immune state, such as C-peptide maintenance. Method: Presently, our review highlights the significant studies that evaluated the supplementation of vitamin D and ω-3 PUFAs in humans and animal models in the modulation of T1D. Conclusion: The data collected suggests that supplementation can provide potential benefits, mainly when done early in the diagnosis, since it reduces the need for insulin and the risk of complications generated by the disease.

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