drying process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 215 ◽  
pp. 49-66
Author(s):  
Ángel H. Moreno ◽  
Ángel Javier Aguirre ◽  
Rafael Hernández Maqueda ◽  
Geovanny Jiménez Jiménez ◽  
Carlos Torres Miño

Uniciencia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Julián Rojas-Vargas ◽  
José Mora-Barrantes ◽  
Pablo Herrera-Vargas ◽  
Vinicio Arias-Zuñiga

The grease and oil trap systems (GOTS) of four university food service establishments (FSE) were assessed and treated to evaluate the potential use of the sludge collected to produce compost. The sludge collected from each FSE was kept in a drying bed for 30 days (SDB), during which time calcium oxide was frequently added for stabilization. The sludge deposited monthly was reduced to half after the drying process and was then deposited in a composter and mixed for a period of 22 days with constant agitation. The compost obtained was treated with degrading enzymes and was denominated enzymatic composting (EC), while the remaining compost was not treated with enzyme and was denominated non-enzymatic compost (NEC). The total composting cycle of the sludge lasted 83 days, during which time various physical and chemical analyzes were conducted in the three types of substrates (SDB, NEC, and EC).  The total time of the research was 2.5 years.  The percentages of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium suggest the use of the three substrates as organic fertilizer. A recommendation resulting from this research is to evaluate the sludge quality by mixing it with other substrates such as fruit peels with high nitrogen content and the sludge from wastewater treatment systems.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 148
Author(s):  
Ning Zhao ◽  
Yongxin Feng ◽  
Debo Li ◽  
Limei Chen

With the improvement of environmental protection requirements, more and more attention has been given to desulphurization wastewater with zero discharge in coal power plants. Atomization drying is part of the main zero discharge technologies at present. Economic analysis of the atomization drying of desulphurization wastewater is beneficial to the formulation of an appropriate operation scheme and to the reduction of operation costs. The economic analysis and sensitivity analysis of different operating conditions such as unit load, the handling capacity of concentrates, and the temperature of the extracted flue gas in the atomization drying process of concentrated desulfurized wastewater were carried out in this paper. The main cost of the drying process came from the influence of flue gas extraction on the overall heat transfer in the boiler, resulting in the decrease in power generation revenue, which can reach more than 80%. The operating cost of auxiliary machinery was relatively low. The cost of treatment for per ton of concentrates increased first and then decreased with the increase in temperature of the extracted flue gas, and it decreased with the increase in the handling capacity of the concentrates. The effect of a unit load on the treatment cost was also related to the temperature of the extracted flue gas, and the optimal flue gas temperature increase to higher temperatures as the unit load decreased. The minimum treatment costs per ton of concentrate ranged from CNY 143.54/t to CNY 158.77/t under different unit loads. Sensitivity analysis showed that the temperature of the extracted flue gas had the greatest impact on treatment cost, and its sensitivity coefficient was 0.0834. The ways in which to improve economic benefits were discussed.


Author(s):  
Jianchao Wu ◽  
Jie Fang ◽  
Jianjun Wang ◽  
Yabin Liang ◽  
Weijie Li

Air-drying process of soil is a crucial procedure in geological and geotechnical engineering. Drying-induced ground subsidence and damage to overlying buildings is a widespread and urgent problem. Monitoring of drying-induced water evaporation in soil is of great importance. In this paper, soil moisture loss monitoring based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer using electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique was investigated. A physical model test in our laboratory was conducted to study the feasibility and applicability. In the experimental research, three identical PZT transducers that were wrapped with waterproof insulation glue were pre-embedded inside a cohesive soil specimen. In addition, another PZT transducer was embedded in a sandy soil specimen to explore the application effect in soil with different composition. EMI signatures of these four PZT patches during the air-drying process were collected and analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the peak frequency in the conductance signatures presented a rightward shift as the water evaporates. Moreover, the corresponding peak magnitude keep decreasing with the continuous development of soil moisture loss. To better quantify the variations, two statistical metrics including root mean square deviation (RMSD) and mean absolute percentage deviation (MAPD) were employed to study the changing characteristics of the EMI signatures. All these two metrics increase coincidentally in the process. Experimental results demonstrate that cohesive and sandy soil moisture loss monitoring by using the embedded PZT transducer is feasible and reliable. This work also serves as a proof-of-concept study to demonstrate the performance of the EMI technique in monitoring the soil moisture content.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2163 (1) ◽  
pp. 012002
Author(s):  
F J Regino-Ubarnes ◽  
H Y Jaramillo ◽  
F E Moreno-Garcia

Abstract This research work consists of the development of an automated sustainable drying system using forced and preheated air to reduce the production time of handmade bricks, so a dryer witha solar collector wasimplemented to take advantage of the energy from solar radiation. A virtualinstrument was developed, which allows to visualize the variables of temperature and humidityinside the drying chamber, additionally a temperature control was implemented, this control allows the system to maintain a constant temperature during the drying process. Samples were taken from the production of the brick kiln “El Tejar” and dried by this device, thenthe drying times and their physical and mechanical properties were compared, finding that the bricks dried with the proposed prototype retained these properties. As for the compressive strength tests for samples of both processes was around 30.6 Kgf/cm2 and 31.2 Kgf/cm2, the deflection resistance was around 1.2 Kgf/cm2 and 1.3 Kgf/cm2, the initial absorption rate was around 0.3 g/cm2/min and 0.4 g/cm2/min, and finally the percentage of water absorption for both processes were around 12.9% and 13.1%. The difference lies in the drying times, since drying in the artisanal brick kilns takes about 15 daysin the proposed dryer takes 9 days, resulting in a decrease of 40% in this process.


2022 ◽  
pp. 110960
Author(s):  
Katarzyna Samborska ◽  
Sadegh Poozesh ◽  
Alicja Barańska ◽  
Mariia Sobulska ◽  
Aleksandra Jedlińska ◽  
...  
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