Prevention Strategies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 217 ◽  
pp. 104284
Andreas Rienow ◽  
Lakshmi N. Kantakumar ◽  
Gohar Ghazaryan ◽  
Arne Dröge-Rothaar ◽  
Sarah Sticksel ◽  

2021 ◽  
Sofia Lema ◽  
José Esteban Hernández ◽  
Andrea Carolina Reyes García ◽  
Francisco Palencia-Sánchez

The prevalence of refractive errors has been increasing over time, and its correlation with the increase in time spent in front of electronic media and screens has been studied. However, the literature regarding prevention strategies for this phenomenon is scarce compared to that found for other conditions associated with the use of video terminals such as computer vision syndrome and dry eye syndrome. This review aims to compile the main prevention strategies for refractive errors, specifically myopia, associated with the use of electronic media. For this, a systematic rapid review of the literature in databases and gray literature databases was carried out, finding that the general recommendations focus on increasing outdoor exposure at least 120 minutes a day, maintaining a distance of at least 30 minutes. cm from the device screen, take breaksduring reading sessions and do blinking exercises, among others, as well as clinical measures such as the use of ophthalmic drops with atropine, glasses or multifocal lenses, and orthokeratology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Abdelfattah Selim ◽  
Ameer Megahed ◽  
Sahar Kandeel ◽  
Abdulaziz Alouffi ◽  
Mashal M. Almutairi

AbstractDetermination of the seroprevalence and risk factors that are associated with West Nile virus (WNV) in horses is essential for adoption of effective prevention strategies. Our objective in this study, therefore, was to determine the seroprevalence and to identify the risk factors associated with WNV infection in the most densely horse-populated governorates in Egypt. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 on 930 horses, which were distributed over five governorates in the Nile delta of Egypt. The horses, which were randomly selected, were serologically tested through use of an ID screen West Nile competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-WNV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT; gold standard) to confirm the seropositive status of animals and to avoid cross reaction with other flavi-viruses. Four variables (geographical location, breed, sex and age) were considered in the risk analysis. Univariable and stepwise forward multivariable logistic regression methods were used for risk-factor analysis. The odds ratio (OR) was used as an approximate measure of relative risk. A total of 156 (16.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.4–19.2; P < 0.001) serum samples were found to be serologically positive for WNV. The highest seroprevalence rate was detected in horses of age ≥ 15 years (68.1%; 95% CI 49.8–72.4), stallions (26.4%; 95% CI 22.7–30.4), and those of mixed breed (21.5%; 95% CI 17.7–27.5). Horses older than 15 years were found to be at increased risk of WNV infection with OR = 4.3 (95% CI 3.0–6.2, P < 0.001) compared with horses aged under 2.5 years. Also, when all the risk factors were considered, stallions were more likely than mares to be WNV seropositive (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.6–3.7, P < 0.001), and of the breeds, mixed-breed (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.8, P = 0.005) and Arabian horses (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.8, P = 0.005) were more likely to be seropositive. Geographical location seemed to have no impact on the seroprevalence of exposure to WNV among these horses. Due to these findings, we strongly recommend intensive surveillance and implementation of effective control and prevention strategies against WNV, especially in stallion, mixed-breed horses with ages ≥ 15 years.

2021 ◽  
Caterina Vannucci ◽  
Michael Bonsall ◽  
Martina Di Simplicio ◽  
Aimee McMullan ◽  
Emily A Holmes ◽  

Positive mood amplification is a hallmark of the bipolar disorder spectrum (BPDS). We need bet-ter understanding of cognitive mechanisms leading to such elevated mood. Generation of vivid, emo-tionally compelling mental imagery is proposed to act as an ‘emotional amplifier’ in BPDS.We used a positive mental imagery generation paradigm to manipulate affect in a subclinical BPDS-relevant sample reporting high (n=31) vs. low (n=30) hypomanic-like experiences on the Mood Dis-order Questionnaire (MDQ). Participants were randomized to an ‘elated’ or ‘calm’ mental imagery condi-tion, rating their momentary affect four times across the experimental session. We hypothesized greater affect increase in the high (vs. low) MDQ group assigned to the elated (vs. calm) imagery generation condition. We further hypothesized that this change would be driven by increases in the types of affect typically associated with (hypo)mania, i.e., suggestive of high activity lev-els.Mixed model and time-series analysis showed that for the high MDQ group, affect increased steeply and in a sustained manner over time in the ‘elated’ imagery condition, and more shallowly in ‘calm’. The low-MDQ group did not show this amplification effect. Analysis of affect clusters showed high-MDQ mood amplification in the ‘elated’ imagery condition was most pronounced for active affective states. This experimental model of BPDS-relevant mood amplification shows evidence that positive men-tal imagery drives changes in affect in the high MDQ group in a targeted manner. Findings inform cogni-tive mechanisms of mood amplification, and spotlight prevention strategies targeting elated imagery, while potentially retaining calm imagery to preserve adaptive positive emotionality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Jose Antonio Navarro Alonso ◽  
Louis J. Bont ◽  
Elena Bozzola ◽  
Egbert Herting ◽  
Federico Lega ◽  

AbstractRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV)—the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis—is a significant cause of serious illness among young children between the ages of 0–5 years and is especially concerning in the first year of life. Globally, RSV is a common cause of childhood acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) and a major cause of hospital admissions in young children and infants and represents a substantial burden for health-care systems. This burden is strongly felt as there are currently no effective preventative options that are available for all infants. However, a renaissance in RSV prevention strategies is unfolding, with several new prophylactic options such as monoclonal antibodies and maternal vaccinations that are soon to be available. A key concern is that health decision makers and systems may not be ready to take full advantage of forthcoming technological innovations. A multi-stakeholder approach is necessary to bridge data gaps to fully utilise upcoming options. Knowledge must be made available at multiple levels to ensure that parents and doctors are aware of preventative options, but also to ensure that stakeholders and policymakers are given the necessary information to best advise implementation strategies.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3014
Hai-Yang Song ◽  
Kai-Sheng Wang ◽  
Jian-Fa Yang ◽  
Hua-Ming Mao ◽  
Li-Hua Pu ◽  

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a fungus-like protist parasite that can cause diarrhea and enteric diseases. The infection of E. bieneusi has been reported in many host species, including cattle and humans. However, information on prevalence and genotype distribution of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle in Yunnan province in China is still absent. In this study, 490 Holstein Cows and 351 dairy buffalo fecal samples were collected from three regions in Yunnan province, China. By using nest-PCR that targets the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), we found that the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 0.59% (5/841). DNA sequence analysis showed that five E. bieneusi genotypes were identified in this study, including two novel genotypes, YNDCEB-90 and YNDCEB-174, and three known genotypes (I, J, BEB4). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two novel genotypes, YNDCEB-90 and YNDCEB-174, were clustered into Group 1, representing the zoonotic potential. The remaining genotypes I, J, and BEB4, which are the most frequent genotypes of E. bieneusi infection in cattle and lead to E. bieneusi infection in humans, belonged to Group 2. Although the lower prevalence of E. bieneusi was detected in dairy cattle in Yunnan province, it indicates that dairy cattle should be considered to be one of the potential hosts for transmitting E. bieneusi to humans. These findings are important for the development of effective prevention strategies for microsporidiosis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-68
Emile Miranda Pereira ◽  
Karine Brito Beck da Silva ◽  
Priscila Ribas de Farias Costa ◽  
Laís Eloy Machado da Silva ◽  
Carina Márcia Magalhães Nepomuceno ◽  

Abstract Anorexia nervosa (AN) and restrained eating behavior (REB) are characterized by reduced food intake to achieve body weight loss. This scope review aimed to describe the existing evidence on the association between anorexia nervosa, restrictive eating behavior and food consumption. Studies with children and adolescents of both sexes of all races and ethnicities were included. Experimental and observational studies, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, case reports or series, conference abstracts, dissertations and theses were also included. The search was conducted in ten electronic databases and gray literature without language restriction on November 14, 2020. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies included girls and identified lower intake of calories, fat and certain micronutrients. There was also a higher intake of caffeine, fiber, vegetables, legumes and fruits and a lower intake of low-quality snack, fast food, sweets and foods with high carbohydrate and fat contents. The need to improve the quality of the diet among study participants was also identified. Thus, it is recommended that the evaluation of food consumption be careful to develop effective prevention strategies for the development of AN/REB and minimize nutritional deficiencies in these individuals.

Murali Krishna ◽  
Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi ◽  
Sudeep Pradeep Kumar ◽  
Rajagopal Rajendra ◽  
Narendra Heggere ◽  

Background: In high-income countries, dedicated self-harm surveillance systems are regarded as a key component in suicide prevention strategies, which suggests they may be important in low- and middle-income countries where rates of suicide are higher and risk factors for self-harm are different, provided they can be shown to be feasible in those settings.Methods: We established a hospital based self-harm register in Mysore, South India. A subset of participants was followed-up after two years. Results: Of the 453 who were examined at baseline, the vast majority (80%) were from rural areas, nearly a quarter were illiterate and 65 (14%) were diagnosed with depression. Compared to men, women tended to be younger, single, from rural areas, unemployed, with lower levels of educational attainment and higher levels of disability. Of the 453, 371 (80%) were successfully contacted by cellphone at 2 years. There were no significant differences in baseline variables between those followed-up and those who were not, including sociodemographic features, rates of depression, severity of disability and severity of suicidal intent. All participants reported that psychosocial assessment offered at baseline was helpful and that they would recommend assessment to othersConclusions: Findings from this study indicate that our self-harm register was a feasible and useful resource, and that contact and follow up are acceptable and feasible.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Liyuan Chen ◽  
Qi Wang ◽  
Yun Gao ◽  
Jinxiang Zhang ◽  
Sheng Cheng ◽  

Abstract Background Maternal sepsis and other maternal infections (MSMI) have considerable impacts on women’s and neonatal health, but data on the global burden and trends of MSMI are limited. Comprehensive knowledge of the burden and trend patterns of MSMI is important to allocate resources, facilitate the establishment of tailored prevention strategies and implement effective clinical treatment measures. Methods Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease database, we analysed the global burden of MSMI by the incidence, death, disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the last 30 years. Then, the trends of MSMI were assessed by the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) of MMR as well as the age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence, death and DALY. Moreover, we determined the effect of sociodemographic index (SDI) on MSMI epidemiological parameters. Results Although incident cases almost stabilized from 1990 to 2015, the ASR of incidence, death, DALY and MMR steadily decreased globally from 1990 to 2019. The burden of MSMI was the highest in the low SDI region with the fastest downward trends. MSMI is still one of the most important causes of maternal death in the developed world. Substantial diversity of disease burden and trends occurred in different regions and individual countries, most of which had reduced burden and downward trends. The MMR and ASR were negatively correlated with corresponding SDI value in 2019 in 204 countries/territories and 21 regions. Conclusion These findings highlight significant improvement in MSMI care in the past three decades, particularly in the low and low-middle SDI regions. However, the increased burden and upward trends of MSMI in a few countries and regions are raising concern, which poses a serious challenge to maternal health. More tailored prevention measures and additional resources for maternal health are urgently needed to resolve this problem.

Dominik Szymski ◽  
Sabine Opitz ◽  
Christian Pfeifer ◽  
Markus Rupp ◽  
Peter Angele ◽  

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