lymph node metastases
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BJR|Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Alexander Maurer ◽  
Helen Schiesser ◽  
Stephan Skawran ◽  
Antonio G. Gennari ◽  
Manuel Dittli ◽  

Objectives: To assess the frequency and intensity of [18F]-PSMA-1007 axillary uptake in lymph nodes ipsilateral to COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in patients with prostate cancer referred for oncological [18F]-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MR imaging. Methods: One hundred twenty six patients undergoing [18F]-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MR imaging were retrospectively included. [18F]-PSMA activity (SUVmax) of ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes was measured and compared with the non-vaccinated contralateral side-and with a non-vaccinated negative control group. [18F]-PSMA active lymph node metastases were measured to serve as quantitative reference. Results: There was a significant difference in SUVmax in ipsilateral and compared to contralateral axillary lymph nodes in the vaccination group (n = 63, p < 0.001) and no such difference in the non-vaccinated control group (n = 63, p = 0.379). Vaccinated patients showed mildly increased axillary lymph node [18F]-PSMA uptake as compared to non-vaccinated patients (p = 0.03). [18F]-PSMA activity of of lymph node metastases was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to axillary lymph nodes of vaccinated patients. Conclusions: Our data suggest mildly increased [18F]-PSMA uptake after COVID-19 vaccination in ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. However, given the significantly higher [18F]-PSMA uptake of prostatic lymph node metastases compared to “reactive” nodes after COVID-19 vaccination, no therapeutic and diagnostic dilemma is to be expected. Advances in knowledge: No specific preparations or precautions (e.g., adaption of vaccination scheduling) need to be undertaken in patients undergoing [18F]-PSMA PET imaging after COVID-19 vaccination.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 395-424
Cristopher Varela ◽  
Nam Kyu Kim

Despite innovative advancements, distally located rectal cancer remains a critical disease of challenging management. The crucial location of the tumor predisposes it to a circumferential resection margin (CRM) that tends to involve the anal sphincter complex and surrounding organs, with a high incidence of delayed anastomotic complications and the risk of the pelvic sidewall or rarely inguinal lymph node metastases. In this regard, colorectal surgeons should be aware of other issues beyond total mesorectal excision (TME) performance. For decades, the concept of extralevator abdominoperineal resection to avoid compromised CRM has been introduced. However, the complexity of deep pelvic dissection with poor visualization in low-lying rectal cancer has led to transanal TME. In contrast, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) has allowed for the execution of more sphincter-saving procedures without oncologic compromise. Significant tumor regression after NCRT and complete pathologic response also permit applying the watch-and-wait protocol in some cases, now with more solid evidence. This review article will introduce the current surgical treatment options, their indication and technical details, and recent oncologic and functional outcomes. Lastly, the novel characteristics of distal rectal cancer, such as pelvic sidewall and inguinal lymph node metastases, will be discussed along with its tailored and individualized treatment approach.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1821-1826
Dang Nguyen Van ◽  
Thao Bich Nguyen ◽  
Nhung Thu Nguyen Thi ◽  
Quang Le Van

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is amongst the most common malignancies of head and neck cancers. Most patients are admitted to the hospital with advanced disease. NPC has a tendency toward early metastatic spread to cervical lymph nodes, and levels II and III are most commonly involved. A few reports have indicated specific metastatic sites of nasopharyngeal cancer, including lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. Evidence of histopathology and immunohistochemistry is required to prove NPC origin. In many cases, surgery can be performed to obtain accurate evidence of the pathology. However, surgery can also affect the overall treatment plan and strategy for NPC and should be considered in the specific circumstances of the disease. Multidisciplinary consultation is required for these uncommonly specific metastases. Paying attention to the specific lymph node metastasis sites of NPC plays an important role in accurately diagnosing the stage, thereby giving an appropriate treatment strategy. It is also important in determining radiotherapy volumes because radiotherapy is the standard therapy for this disease. Herein, we are reporting 2 cases of NPC with clinical metastasis to unusual lymph node sites such as the parotid salivary gland and the cheek. Histological analyses from the resected specimens confirmed its nasopharyngeal origin. Lymph node metastases in the parotid gland and the cheek are unusual. In diagnosis and follow-up, it is necessary to evaluate carefully to make an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plans for patients as well as early detect recurrent metastases at uncommon sites of lymph nodes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Mihajlo Đokic ◽  
Urban Stupan ◽  
Sabina Licen ◽  
Blaz Trotovsek

Abstract Background A better appreciation of the course and factors that influence incidental gallbladder cancer (iGBC) is needed to develop treatment strategies aimed to improve outcomes. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of residual disease in the liver and lymph nodes on overall survival in re-resected patients with iGBC. Patients and methods Patients undergoing radical re-resection for iGBC from January 2012 to December 2018 were retrospectively identified. Patients with a 5-year follow-up and submitted to complete resection with stage I, II and III disease were analysed. The influence of residual disease (RD) in liver and lymph nodes on survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curves. In addition, the rest of the group was assessed based on type of primary/secondary procedure, number of harvested lymph nodes and RD in liver and/or lymph nodes. Results In this retrospective study 48 out of 58 (83%) patients underwent re-resection. Among the group with a 5-year follow-up (re-operation between 2012–2014), 22 patients out of 28 (79%) were re-resected. Survival analysis showed that patients with no RD in the liver and lymph nodes had statistically significant better 5-year survival than those with RD. Comparing 5-year survival rate in patients with RD in the liver or lymph nodes against no RD group, patients with RD in the liver had statistically significantly worse 5-year survival, while lymph node metastases did not show any statistically significant different in 5-year survival. Besides, a statistically significant better prognosis was found in stage II disease compared to stage III, as expected. Conclusions The most important predictors of a 5-year survival in our study were RD in liver and stage of the disease. Lymph node metastases did not have any impact on the overall 5-year survival rate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 22-33
O. A. Maynovskaya ◽  
E. G. Rybakov ◽  
S. V. Chernyshov ◽  
Yu. A. Shelygin ◽  
S. I. Achkasov

AIM to assess prognostic significance of pathologic features of T1 rectal carcinoma in relation to regional lymph nodes involvement (N+).MATERIAL AND METHODS: surgical specimens (n = 66) from rectal resection for carcinoma pT1 were investigated. Following prognosticators were evaluated: depth of submucosal invasion, grade of differentiation, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), tumor budding (Bd), poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) of tumor and rupture of cancer glands (CGR).RESULTS: lymph nodes metastases were found in 13 (19.7%) specimens. LVI was associated lymphatic spread in great possibility OR 38.0 95% CI 2.1-670 (p < 0.0001). Tumor budding of high grade (Bd3) OR 6.2 95% CI 1.2-31 (p < 0.0001) and poorly differentiated clusters (p = 0,03) also increased risk of lymph node metastases. Depth of submucosal invasion, grade of differentiation, and rupture of cancer glands failed to demonstrate significant association with N+. Logistic regression analysis allowed to determine LVI as independent prognostic factor of lymph node tumor involvement.CONCLUSION: lymphovascular invasion, tumor budding and poorly differentiated clusters of tumor are risk factors of T1 rectal carcinoma lymph node metastases.

2021 ◽  
Heidrun Maennle ◽  
Matthias Frank ◽  
Felix Momm ◽  
Jan Willem Siebers

Abstract Purpose: In breast cancer, the lymph node status is of prognostic importance and a decisive factor in therapy planning. This study shows the distribution of lymph nodes metastases of node-positive breast cancer patients. Risk factors for lymph node metastases are described.Methods: 2095 patients with primary breast cancer were analyzed. Analysis included descriptive analysis (median, standard deviation, ranges) and statistical analysis (Chi², discriminant analysis).Results: The nodal stage was positive in 39.4% of all patients and negative in 60.6%. If the nodal stage was positive, only 1 lymph node was involved in 36% of the patients; more than 1 lymph node was involved in 64% of the patients. With an increasing number of lymph node metastases in level I, the probability of an involvement in level III also increases (F 437.845, p = .000). Other indicators are evidence of hemangiosis (F 247.728, p = .000) or lymphangiosis (F 167.368, P = .000). Despite <10 affected lymph nodes, 3.4% of the patients had nodal stage N3 due to level III involvement.Conclusion: Even with only a small number of lymph node metastases in level I higher lymphatic stations are often affected. The data cannot lead to a decision regarding an operation or radiation indication, but they can better substantiate the risk for certain therapy decisions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 268 ◽  
pp. 419-431
Yuki Fujii ◽  
Ching-Wei Tzeng ◽  
Yi-Ju Chiang ◽  
Daniel M. Halperin ◽  
Arvind Dasari ◽  

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