Node Metastases
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Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 6028
Marta Tagliabue ◽  
Gioacchino Giugliano ◽  
Maria Cecilia Mariani ◽  
Manila Rubino ◽  
Enrica Grosso ◽  

Papillary thyroid micro-carcinomas are considered relatively indolent carcinomas, often occult and incidental, with good prognosis and favorable outcomes. Despite these findings, central lymph node metastases are common, and are related to a poor prognosis for the patient. We performed a retrospective analysis on patients treated with surgery for stage pT1a papillary thyroid micro-carcinomas. One hundred ninety-five patients were included in the analyses. The presence of central lymph node metastases was identified and studied. A multivariate analysis employing binary logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of possible central lymph node metastases risk factors. In the performed multivariate analysis, male gender, younger age, and histopathological characteristics, such as a tumor sub-capsular localization, were significantly associated with central lymph node metastases in pT1a patients. Central compartment lymph node metastases are present in a non-negligible number of cases in patients with papillary thyroid micro-carcinoma undergoing surgical resection. Studying these factors could be an effective tool for predicting patients’ central lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid micro-carcinomas, defining a tailored surgical treatment in the future.

Amaia Gantxegi ◽  
B. Feike Kingma ◽  
Jelle P. Ruurda ◽  
Grard A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen ◽  
Misha D. P. Luyer ◽  

Abstract Background The role of upper mediastinal lymphadenectomy for distal esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas remains a matter of debate. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of evidence on the incidence of nodal metastases in the upper mediastinum following transthoracic esophagectomy for distal esophageal or GEJ adenocarcinoma. Methods A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases up to November 2020 to include studies on patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with upper mediastinal lymphadenectomy for distal esophageal and/or GEJ adenocarcinoma. The primary endpoint was the incidence of metastatic nodes in the upper mediastinum based on pathological examination. Secondary endpoints were the definition of upper mediastinal lymphadenectomy, recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy rate and survival. Results A total of 17 studies were included and the sample sizes ranged from 10-634 patients. Overall, the median incidence of upper mediastinal lymph node metastases was 10.0% (IQR 4.7-16.7). The incidences of upper mediastinal lymph node metastases were 8.3% in the 7 studies that included patients undergoing primary resection (IQR 2.0-16.6), 4,4% in the 1 study that provided neoadjuvant therapy to the full cohort, and 10.6% in the 9 studies that included patients undergoing esophagectomy either with or without neoadjuvant therapy (IQR 8.9-15.8%). Data on survival and RLN palsy rates were scarce and inconclusive. Conclusions The incidence of upper mediastinal lymph node metastases in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma is up to 10%. Morbidity should be weighed against potential impact on survival.

2021 ◽  
pp. 028418512110418
Jin-Ru Yang ◽  
Yan Song ◽  
Shu-Juan Chang ◽  
Li-Li Shi

Background The relationship between the American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) and the risk of lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) could improve the detection rate of lymph node metastases in thyroid cancer and provide a scientific basis for clinical diagnosis. Purpose To evaluate the risk of lymph node metastases of PTC associated with the score from ACR TI-RADS adjusted for other correlative factors. Material and Methods A total of 560 patients with pathologically confirmed PTC were included in the study and classified into a metastases group and a non-metastases group. Clinical and pathological manifestations of the patients were collected. Results The median TI-RADS score was 13 (p25–p75 = 11–14) among the patients with lymph node metastases, higher than those without metastases 9 (8–10) ( P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression indicated that TI-RADS score (odds ratio [OR] = 2.204), male sex (OR = 2.376), multifocality (OR = 4.170), and rich blood flow (OR = 3.656) were risk factors for lymph node metastases in patients with thyroid carcinoma. Some related factors such as TI-RADS score, age(<45years old), male, multifocality and rich blood flow were related to lymph node metastases in the central area of the neck which could provide therapeutic strategy for further treatment. Conclusion it is not just the TI-RADS score but also multifocality, blood flow, and sex that influence the prediction of the risk of PTC central lymph node metastases.

Oral Oncology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 123 ◽  
pp. 105627
Oisín Bugter ◽  
Yassine Aaboubout ◽  
Mahesh Algoe ◽  
Henriëtte S. de Bruijn ◽  
Stijn Keereweer ◽  

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 5876
Konstantinos S. Papadakos ◽  
Catharina Hagerling ◽  
Lisa Rydén ◽  
Anna-Maria Larsson ◽  
Anna M. Blom

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a regulator of the extracellular matrix and is expressed primarily in the cartilage. Recently, COMP expression was also documented in breast cancer patients both in sera and tumor biopsies, in both of which it could serve as an independent prognostic marker. This study aimed to assess COMP as a potential biomarker in the group of metastatic breast cancer patients. Levels of COMP were measured by ELISA in serum samples of 141 metastatic breast cancer patients. Biopsies from primary tumors, synchronous lymph node metastases, and distant metastases were stained for COMP expression. The levels of serum COMP were higher in patients with ER- and HER2-positive tumors when compared to triple-negative tumors and correlated with the presence of bone and lung metastases, circulating tumor cell count, and clusters. Most of the primary tumors expressing COMP (70%) retained the expression also in the lymph node metastases, which correlated with visceral metastases and reduced survival. In conclusion, COMP appears as a valuable biomarker in metastatic breast cancer patients indicating a more severe stage of the disease. Serum COMP levels were associated with specific types of metastases in patients with metastatic breast cancer emphasizing that further studies are warranted to elucidate its potential role as a monitoring marker.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Zeng Fang ◽  
Ruizhi Wang ◽  
Ciqiu Yang ◽  
Dong Wang ◽  
Wanna Chen ◽  

Background. We developed a new nomogram combining serum biomarkers with clinicopathological features to improve the accuracy of prediction of nonsentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases in Chinese breast cancer patients. Methods. We enrolled 209 patients with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy and axillary lymph node dissection. We evaluated the relationships between non-SLN metastases and clinicopathologic features, as well as preoperative routine tests of blood indexes, tumor markers, and serum lipids, including lipoprotein a (Lp(a)). Risk factors for non-SLN metastases were identified by logistic regression analysis. The nomogram was created using the R program to predict the risk of non-SLN metastases in the training set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to assess the predictive value of the nomogram model in the validation set. Results. Lp(a) was significantly associated with non-SLN metastasis status. Compared with the MSKCC model, the predictive ability of our new nomogram that combined Lp(a) level and clinical variables (pathologic tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, multifocality, and positive/negative SLN numbers) was significantly greater (AUC: 0.732, 95% CI: 0.643–0.821) (C-index: 0.703, 95% CI: 0.656–0.791) in the training cohorts and also performed well in the validation cohorts (C-index: 0.773, 95% CI: 0.681–0.865). Moreover, the new nomogram with Lp(a) improved the accuracy (12.10%) of identification of patients with non-SLN metastases (NRI: 0.121; 95% CI: 0.081–0.202; P = 0.011 ). Conclusions. This novel nomogram based on preoperative serum indexes combined with clinicopathologic features facilitates accurate prediction of risk of non-SLN metastases in Chinese patients with breast cancer.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 5763
Christian Doll ◽  
Carolin Bestendonk ◽  
Kilian Kreutzer ◽  
Konrad Neumann ◽  
Anne Pohrt ◽  

Introduction: Several studies suggest an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-mediated influence on the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), as described for other malignancies that are not considered to be primarily hormone-dependent. Recently, an association between ERα expression and improved survival in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been found. However, the prognostic relevance of ERα in OSCC has not been proven to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate ERα expression in OSCC in a large patient cohort and analyze its influence on survival and recurrence. Material and Methods: A total of 316 patients with primary OSCC who received initial surgical therapy were included in this analysis. The expression of ERα was evaluated on tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry in the primary tumor and/or primary lymph node metastases. The expression level was quantified by light microscopy using the immunoreactive score (IRS) for estrogen receptor detection. An IRS equal to or greater than 2 was considered positive. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were examined by the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test. Results: A total of 316 patients (111 females; 205 males) with a mean age of 61.3 years (range 27–96 years) were included in this study. In 16 patients (5.1%; 6 females and 10 males), positive ERα expression was found in the primary tumor (n = 11; 11/302) or lymph node metastases (n = 5; 5/52). Patients with positive ERα expression in primary tumors/primary lymph node metastases had a significantly lower OS and RFS (p = 0.012; p = 0.0053) compared to ERα-negative patients. Sub-group analysis in relation to gender revealed a highly significant influence of ERα expression on OS and RFS in males but not in females, both for the ERα-positive primary tumor cohort (males: p = 0.0013; p < 0.0001; females: p = 0.56; p = 0.89) and the ERα-positive primary tumor/primary lymph node metastasis cohort (males: p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001; females: p = 0.95; p = 0.96). In multivariate cox regression analysis, the ERα IRS of primary tumors (dichotomized; ERα+ vs. ERα−) was an independent risk factor for OS (HR = 4.230; 95%CI 1.616–11.076; p = 0.003) and RFS (HR = 12.390; 95%CI 4.073–37.693; p < 0.001) in the male cohort. There was a significant difference (p = 0.006) of ERα positivity with regard to the localization of the primary tumor. ERα positivity in the primary tumor was significantly associated (p = 0.026) with UICC stage, with most of the cases being diagnosed in stage IV. Furthermore, there was a significantly (p = 0.049) higher rate of bone infiltration in ERα-positive patients. Conclusion: Expression of ERα is rare in OSCC; however, it is associated with a dramatic decrease in OS in male patients. Further studies are necessary to confirm our results and to evaluate the exact mechanism underlying this observation. Hence, ERα-positive OSCC patients might benefit from an ER-based therapeutic (adjuvant) approach in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vijay S

Abstract Breast cancer is the most common cancer found in women. 1. Metastasis is the leading cause of mortality among cancer patients. 2. As the number of axillary lymph nodes with metastases grows the prognosis for patients with breast cancer worsens3. We used a published microarray dataset4 to find genes linked to lymph node metastasis, which is an early stage of breast cancer metastasis. When comparing original breast tumors to lymph node metastases from patients diagnosed with breast cancer, we discovered substantial differences in LHFP gene expression. When comparing primary breast tumors to neighboring normal breast tissue, LHFP was shown to be one of the most differentially expressed genes in a separate microarray dataset5. In individuals with breast cancer, LHFP expression was shown to be substantially linked with median overall survival. LHFP may be involved in the mechanisms that lead to the transformation or progression of the original tumor in human breast cancer, as well as lymph node metastasis. Breast cancer, breast cancer metastasis, lymph node metastasis, LHFP, breast cancer systems biology, and breast cancer targeted treatments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xiaoyu Li ◽  
Dashan Ai ◽  
Yun Chen ◽  
Qi Liu ◽  
Jiaying Deng ◽  

BackgroundSquamous cell cancers in the hypopharynx (HP) and cervical esophagus (CE) are different diseases with different staging systems and treatment approaches. Pharyngoesophageal junction (PEJ) tumor involves both the hypopharynx and the cervical esophagus simultaneously, but few reports focused on PEJ tumors. This study aimed to clarify clinical characteristics and the treatment approaches of PEJ tumors.Patients and MethodsA total of 222 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the HP, PEJ, and CE were collected between January 2008 and June 2018 in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. We compared different lymph node metastatic patterns of three diseases above and the survival of different tumor locations, different lymph node metastasis, and different radiotherapy approaches.ResultsFor HP, PEJ, and CE cancer, the upper and middle cervical lymph node metastatic rates were 85.7%, 47.1%, and 5.8%, respectively; the lower cervical lymph node metastatic rates were 36.7%, 42.9%, and 35.0%, respectively; and the mediastinal lymph node metastatic rates were 2.0%, 72.9%, and 80.6%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival rates were 69.5% in the HP group, 52.0% in the PEJ group, and 69.6% in the CE group (p = 0.024). No survival differences were found between the involved-field-irradiation and elective-node-irradiation subgroups among PEJ tumors (p = 0.717 for OS and p = 0.454 for PFS, respectively).ConclusionHP cancers had a high prevalence in all cervical lymph node metastases, while CE cancers had a lower prevalence in the cervical and mediastinal lymph node metastases. PEJ cancer had the combined metastatic patterns of both HP and CE cancers. Involved field irradiation was feasible in chemoradiotherapy for PEJ cancers.

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