contractile function
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2022 ◽  
Prasanna Katti ◽  
Alexander S Hall ◽  
Peter T Ajayi ◽  
Yuho Kim ◽  
T Bradley Willingham ◽  

Sustained muscle contraction occurs through interactions between actin and myosin filaments within sarcomeres and requires a constant supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from nearby mitochondria. However, it remains unclear how different physical configurations between sarcomeres and mitochondria alter the energetic support for contractile function. Here, we show that sarcomere cross-sectional area (CSA) varies along its length in a cell type-dependent manner where the reduction in Z-disk CSA relative to the sarcomere center is closely coordinated with mitochondrial network configuration. Further, we find myosin filaments near the sarcomere periphery are curved relative to interior filaments with greater curvature for filaments near mitochondria compared to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Finally, we demonstrate myosin filament lattice spacing is smaller at filament ends than filament centers in a cell type-dependent manner. These data suggest that both sarcomere structure and myofilament interactions are influenced by the location and orientation of mitochondria within a muscle cell.

Alexandra Rhoden ◽  
Thomas Schulze ◽  
Niels Pietsch ◽  
Torsten Christ ◽  
Arne Hansen ◽  

Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM), a myosin activator, was reported to induce complex concentration- and species-dependent effects on contractile function and clinical studies indicated a low therapeutic index with diastolic dysfunction at concentrations above 1 µM. To further characterize effects of OM in a human context and under different preload conditions, we constructed a setup that allows isometric contractility analyses of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived engineered heart tissues (EHTs). The results were compared to effects of OM on the very same EHTs measured under auxotonic conditions. OM induced a sustained, concentration-dependent increase in time-to-peak under all conditions (maximally 2-3 fold). Peak force, in contrast, was increased by OM only in human, but not rat EHTs and only under isometric conditions, varied between hiPSC lines and showed a biphasic concentration-dependency with maximal effects at 1 µM. Relaxation time tended to fall under auxotonic and strongly increase under isometric conditions, again with biphasic concentration-dependency. Diastolic tension concentration-dependently increased under all conditions. The latter was reduced by an inhibitor of the mitochondrial sodium calcium exchanger (CGP-37157). OM induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation in isolated cardiomyocytes, indicating that OM, an inotrope that does not increase intracellular and mitochondrial Ca2+, can induce mismatch between an increase in ATP and ROS production and unstimulated mitochondrial redox capacity. Taken together, we developed a novel setup well suitable for isometric measurements of EHTs. The effects of OM on contractility and diastolic tension are complex with concentration-, time-, species- and loading-dependent differences. Effects on mitochondrial function require further studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Björn Müller-Edenborn ◽  
Jan Minners ◽  
Cornelius Keyl ◽  
Martin Eichenlaub ◽  
Nikolaus Jander ◽  

AbstractThromboembolism and stroke are dreaded complications in atrial fibrillation (AF). Established risk stratification models identify susceptible patients, but their discriminative properties are poor. Atrial cardiomyopathy (ACM) is associated to thromboembolism and stroke in smaller studies, but the modalities used for ACM-diagnosis (MRI and endocardial mapping) are unsuitable for widespread population screening. We aimed to investigate an ECG-based diagnosis of ACM using amplified p-wave analysis (APWA) for stratification of thromboembolic risk and cardiovascular outcome. In this case–control study, ACM-staging was performed using APWA on digital 12-lead sinus rhythm-ECGs in patients with LAA-thrombus and a propensity-score-matched control-cohort. Left atrial contractile function and thrombi were evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Outcome for MACCE including death was assessed using official registries and structured phone interviews. Left-atrial appendage [LAA]-thrombi and appropriate sinus rhythm-ECGs for ACM-staging were found in 109 of 4086 patients that were matched 1:1 to control patients without thrombus (218 patients in total). Both cohorts were comparable regarding cardiovascular risk factors, anticoagulants and CHA2DS2-VASC-score. ACM-stages 1 to 3 (equivalent to no, moderate and extensive ACM) were found in 63 (57.8%), 36 (33.0%) and 10 (9.2%) of patients without and 3 (2.8%), 23 (21.1%) and 83 (76.1%) of patients with LAA-thrombi. Atrial contractile function decreased from ACM-stages 1 to 3 (LAA-flow velocities 38 ± 16 cm/s, 31 ± 15 cm/s and 21 ± 12 cm/s; p < 0.0001), while the likelihood for LAA-thrombus increased (2.8%, 21.1% and 76.1%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis confirmed an independent odds ratio for LAA-thrombus of 24.6 (p < 0.001) per ACM-stage. Two-year survival free of stroke/TIA, hospitalization for heart failure, myocardial infarction or all-cause death was strongly reduced in ACM-stage 3 (53.8%) compared to no or moderate ACM (82.8% and 84.7%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Electrocardiographic diagnosis of ACM identifies patients with atrial contractile dysfunction and atrial thrombi at risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes and death.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 825-830
V. I. Podzolkov ◽  
A. I. Tarzimanova ◽  
A. E. Bragina ◽  
I. I. Shvedov ◽  
E. E. Bykova ◽  

Aim. To evaluate the effect of sinus tachycardia and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on the prognosis of patients with a verified diagnosis of a new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2.Material and methods. The study included 1,637 patients with a verified diagnosis of a new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2. The average age of the patients was 58.8±16.1 years. More than half of the patients admitted to the hospital had a history of cardiovascular diseases: hypertension was diagnosed in 915 (56%) patients, coronary artery disease – in 563 (34%), chronic heart failure – in 410 (25%). 294 (17.9%) patients suffered from diabetes mellitus. The unfavorable course of new coronavirus infection was assessed by the fact of being in the intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation and death.Results. An unfavorable course of coronavirus infection was observed in 160 (9.8%) patients. Statistical analysis revealed that 341 (20.8%) patients with COVID-19 were diagnosed with sinus tachycardia, which required the appointment of pulse-reducing therapy. The occurrence of sinus tachycardia in patients with COVID-19 significantly increased the risk of death (odds ratio [OR] 1.248, confidence interval [CI] 1.038-1.499, p=0.018), increased the likelihood of mechanical ventilation use (OR 1.451, CI 1.168-1.803, p<0.001) and stay in the ICU (OR 1.440, CI 1.166-1.778, p<0.001).In 97 (5.9%) patients during hospital stay during echocardiography, a decrease in LVEF of less than 50% was diagnosed. A decrease in myocardial contractile function in patients with COVID-19 with high reliability increased the risk of death (OR 1.744, CI 1.348-2.256, p<0.001), increased the likelihood of using the mechanical ventilation (OR 1.372, CI 1.047-1.797, p=0.022) and stay in the ICU (OR 1.360, CI 1.077-1.716, p=0.010).Conclusion. The appearance of sinus tachycardia and reduced LVEF are in dependent predictors of the unfavorable course of COVID-19 in relation to factors such as death, the use of mechanical ventilation and the stay of patients in the ICU. Early pharmacological correction of cardiovascular lesions should be one of the goals of the management theese patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aneta Aleksova ◽  
Milijana Janjusevic ◽  
Giulia Gagno ◽  
Alessandro Pierri ◽  
Laura Padoan ◽  

Heart failure (HF) still affects millions of people worldwide despite great advances in therapeutic approaches in the cardiovascular field. Remarkably, unlike pathological hypertrophy, exercise leads to beneficial cardiac hypertrophy characterized by normal or enhanced contractile function. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation improves cardiorespiratory fitness and, as a consequence, ameliorates the quality of life of patients with HF. Particularly, multiple studies demonstrated the improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among patients with HF due to the various processes in the myocardium triggered by exercise. Exercise stimulates IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway activation involved in muscle growth in both the myocardium and skeletal muscle by regulating protein synthesis and catabolism. Also, physical activity stimulates the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In addition, emerging data pointed out the anti-inflammatory effects of exercises as well. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for clinicians to accurately evaluate the patient’s condition by performing a cardiopulmonary exercise test and/or a 6-min walking test. Portable devices with the possibility to measure exercise capacity proved to be very useful in this setting as well. The aim of this review is to gather together the molecular processes triggered by the exercise and available therapies in HF settings that could ameliorate heart performance, with a special focus on strategies such as exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mathieu Pernot ◽  
Béatrice Jaspard-vinassa ◽  
Alice Abelanet ◽  
Sebastien Rubin ◽  
Isabelle Forfar ◽  

AbstractHeart failure is the final common stage of most cardiopathies. Cardiomyocytes (CM) connect with others via their extremities by intercalated disk protein complexes. This planar and directional organization of myocytes is crucial for mechanical coupling and anisotropic conduction of the electric signal in the heart. One of the hallmarks of heart failure is alterations in the contact sites between CM. Yet no factor on its own is known to coordinate CM polarized organization. We have previously shown that PDZRN3, an ubiquitine ligase E3 expressed in various tissues including the heart, mediates a branch of the Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling involved in tissue patterning, instructing cell polarity and cell polar organization within a tissue. PDZRN3 is expressed in the embryonic mouse heart then its expression dropped significantly postnatally corresponding with heart maturation and CM polarized elongation. A moderate CM overexpression of Pdzrn3 (Pdzrn3 OE) during the first week of life, induced a severe eccentric hypertrophic phenotype with heart failure. In models of pressure-overload stress heart failure, CM-specific Pdzrn3 knockout showed complete protection against degradation of heart function. We reported that Pdzrn3 signaling induced PKC ζ expression, c-Jun nuclear translocation and a reduced nuclear ß catenin level, consistent markers of the planar non-canonical Wnt signaling in CM. We then show that subcellular localization (intercalated disk) of junction proteins as Cx43, ZO1 and Desmoglein 2 was altered in Pdzrn3 OE mice, which provides a molecular explanation for impaired CM polarization in these mice. Our results reveal a novel signaling pathway that controls a genetic program essential for heart maturation and maintenance of overall geometry, as well as the contractile function of CM, and implicates PDZRN3 as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of human heart failure.

Sarah E. Dyer ◽  
J. David Remer ◽  
Kelsey E. Hannifin ◽  
Aishwarya Hombal ◽  
Joseph C. Wenke ◽  

Extended tourniquet application, often associated with battlefield extremity trauma, can lead to severe ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in skeletal muscle. Particulate oxygen generators (POGs) can be directly injected into tissue to supply oxygen to attenuate the effects of I/R injury in muscle. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a sodium percarbonate (SPO)-based POG formulation in reducing ischemic damage in a rat hind limb during tourniquet application. Male Lewis rats were anesthetized and underwent tourniquet application for 3 hours, at a pressure of 300 mmHg. Shortly after tourniquet inflation animals received intramuscular injections of either 0.2 mg/mL SPO with catalase (n=6) or 2.0 mg/mL SPO with catalase (n=6) directly into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. An additional Tourniquet-Only group (n=12) received no intervention. Functional recovery was monitored using in vivo contractile testing of the hind limb at 1-, 2-, and 4-weeks post-injury. By the 4 week time point, the Low Dose POGs group continued to show improved functional recovery (85% of baseline) compared to the Tourniquet-Only (48%) and High Dose POG (56%) groups. In short, the Low Dose POGs formulation appeared, at least in part, to mitigate the impact of ischemic tissue injury, thus improving contractile function following tourniquet application. Functional improvement correlated with maintenance of larger muscle fiber cross sectional area, and the presence of fewer fibers containing centrally located nuclei. As such, POGs represent a potentially attractive therapeutic solution for addressing I/R injuries associated with extremity trauma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rose E. Dixon

The architectural specializations and targeted delivery pathways of cardiomyocytes ensure that L-type Ca2+ channels (CaV1.2) are concentrated on the t-tubule sarcolemma within nanometers of their intracellular partners the type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) which cluster on the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR). The organization and distribution of these two groups of cardiac calcium channel clusters critically underlies the uniform contraction of the myocardium. Ca2+ signaling between these two sets of adjacent clusters produces Ca2+ sparks that in health, cannot escalate into Ca2+ waves because there is sufficient separation of adjacent clusters so that the release of Ca2+ from one RyR2 cluster or supercluster, cannot activate and sustain the release of Ca2+ from neighboring clusters. Instead, thousands of these Ca2+ release units (CRUs) generate near simultaneous Ca2+ sparks across every cardiomyocyte during the action potential when calcium induced calcium release from RyR2 is stimulated by depolarization induced Ca2+ influx through voltage dependent CaV1.2 channel clusters. These sparks summate to generate a global Ca2+ transient that activates the myofilaments and thus the electrical signal of the action potential is transduced into a functional output, myocardial contraction. To generate more, or less contractile force to match the hemodynamic and metabolic demands of the body, the heart responds to β-adrenergic signaling by altering activity of calcium channels to tune excitation-contraction coupling accordingly. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that this tuning process also involves altered expression, and dynamic reorganization of CaV1.2 and RyR2 channels on their respective membranes to control the amplitude of Ca2+ entry, SR Ca2+ release and myocardial function. In heart failure and aging, altered distribution and reorganization of these key Ca2+ signaling proteins occurs alongside architectural remodeling and is thought to contribute to impaired contractile function. In the present review we discuss these latest developments, their implications, and future questions to be addressed.

2022 ◽  
Poonam Sharma ◽  
Clara Liu Chung Ming ◽  
Xiaowei Wang ◽  
Laura A Bienvenu ◽  
Domink Beck ◽  

Abstract Current preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of cardiac injury typical of myocardial infarction (MI, or heart attack) and drug induced cardiotoxicity mimic only a few aspects of these complex scenarios. This leads to a poor translation of findings from the bench to the bedside. In this study, we biofabricated for the first time advanced in vitro models of MI and doxorubicin (DOX) induced injury by exposing cardiac spheroids (CSs) to pathophysiological changes in oxygen (O2) levels or DOX treatment. Then, contractile function and cell death was analyzed in CSs in control versus I/R and DOX CSs. For a deeper dig into cell death analysis, 3D rendering analyses and mRNA level changes of cardiac damage-related genes were compared in control versus I/R and DOX CSs. Overall, in vitro CSs recapitulated major features typical of the in vivo MI and drug induced cardiac damages, such as adapting intracellular alterations to O2 concentration changes and incubation with cardiotoxic drug, mimicking the contraction frequency and fractional shortening and changes in mRNA expression levels for genes regulating sarcomere structure, calcium transport, cell cycle, cardiac remodelling and signal transduction. Taken together, our study supports the use of I/R and DOX CSs as advanced in vitro models to study MI and DOX-induced cardiac damage by recapitulating their complex in vivo scenario.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (2) ◽  
pp. 55-57
V. V. Abramchenko

The author introduces the conception o f potentially reversible myometrial dysfunction with unaffected main physiological function o f myometrium (viability o f myometrium). This dysfunction is connected with the disturbances o f uterine haemodynamics. The phenomenon o f reversible myometrial dysfunction reflects the process o f prolonged decreased contractile ability o f the uterus.The therapy o f reversible myometrial dysfunction phenomenon should be directed to blood flow restoration under the conditions o f uterine hypoperfusion.The special treatment is not required fo r myometrium with reserved main physiological functions (tonus, excitability) because restoration o f myometrial contractile ability improves spontaneously in case o f blood flow restoration.With the aim o f prophylaxis o f myometrial dysfunction and delayed rehabilitation o f the uterine contractile function administration o f Ca antagonists, beta-adrenomymetics, antioxidants and preparations, which improve myometrial metabolic processes, is recommended before the expected delivery.

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