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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Takaho Tsuchiya ◽  
Hiroki Hori ◽  
Haruka Ozaki

Motivation: Cell-cell communications regulate internal cellular states of the cell, e.g., gene expression and cell functions, and play pivotal roles in normal development and disease states. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing methods have revealed cell-to-cell expression variability of highly variable genes (HVGs), which is also crucial. Nevertheless, the regulation on cell-to-cell expression variability of HVGs via cell-cell communications is still unexplored. The recent advent of spatial transcriptome measurement methods has linked gene expression profiles to the spatial context of single cells, which has provided opportunities to reveal those regulations. The existing computational methods extract genes with expression levels that are influenced by neighboring cell types based on the spatial transcriptome data. However, limitations remain in the quantitativeness and interpretability: it neither focuses on HVGs, considers cooperation of neighboring cell types, nor quantifies the degree of regulation with each neighboring cell type. Results: Here, we propose CCPLS (Cell-Cell communications analysis by Partial Least Square regression modeling), which is a statistical framework for identifying cell-cell communications as the effects of multiple neighboring cell types on cell-to-cell expression variability of HVGs, based on the spatial transcriptome data. For each cell type, CCPLS performs PLS regression modeling and reports coefficients as the quantitative index of the cell-cell communications. Evaluation using simulated data showed our method accurately estimated effects of multiple neighboring cell types on HVGs. Furthermore, by applying CCPLS to the two real datasets, we demonstrate CCPLS can be used to extract biologically interpretable insights from the inferred cell-cell communications.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 174
Author(s):  
Cherry Yin-Yi Chang ◽  
An-Jen Chiang ◽  
Ming-Tsung Lai ◽  
Man-Ju Yan ◽  
Chung-Chen Tseng ◽  
...  

Infection-induced chronic inflammation is common in patients with endometriosis. Although microbial communities in the reproductive tracts of patients have been reported, little was known about their dynamic profiles during disease progression and complication development. Microbial communities in cervical mucus were collected by cervical swabs from 10 healthy women and 23 patients, and analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The abundance, ecological relationships and functional networks of microbiota were characterized according to their prevalence, clinical stages, and clinical features including deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), CA125, pain score and infertility. Cervical microbiome can be altered during endometriosis development and progression with a tendency of increased Firmicutes and decreased Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Distinct from vaginal microbiome, upregulation of Lactobacillus, in combination with increased Streptococcus and decreased Dialister, was frequently associated with advanced endometriosis stages, DIE, higher CA125 levels, severe pain, and infertility. Significantly, reduced richness and diversity of cervical microbiome were detected in patients with more severe clinical symptoms. Clinical treatments against infertility can partially reverse the ecological balance of microbes through remodeling nutrition metabolism and transport and cell-cell/cell-matrix interaction. This study provides a new understanding on endometriosis development and a more diverse cervical microbiome may be beneficial for patients to have better clinical outcomes.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xigang Liu ◽  
Ke Zhang ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  
Yanyun Pan ◽  
Lin Guo ◽  
...  

In cell-cell communication, non-cell-autonomous transcription factors play vital roles in controlling plant stem cell fate. We previously reported that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 3 (ARF3), a member of the ARF family with critical roles in floral meristem maintenance and determinacy, has a distinct accumulation pattern that differs from the expression domain of its encoding gene in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). However, the biological meaning of this difference is obscure. Here, we demonstrate that ARF3 expression is mainly activated at the periphery of the SAM by auxin, where ARF3 cell-autonomously regulates the expression of meristem-organ boundary-specific genes, such as CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON1-3 (CUC1-3), BLADE ON PETIOLE1-2 (BOP1-2) and TARGETS UNDER ETTIN CONTROL3 (TEC3) to determine organ patterning. We also show that ARF3 is translocated into the organizing center, where it represses cytokinin activity and WUSCHEL expression to regulate meristem activity non-cell-autonomously. Therefore, ARF3 acts as a molecular link that mediates the interaction of auxin and cytokinin signaling in the SAM while coordinating the balance between meristem maintenance and organogenesis. Our findings reveal an ARF3-mediated coordination mechanism through cell-cell communication in dynamic SAM maintenance.


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 129
Author(s):  
Xenia Snetkov ◽  
Tafhima Haider ◽  
Dejan Mesner ◽  
Nicholas Groves ◽  
Schuyler B. van Engelenburg ◽  
...  

The HIV-1 envelope (Env) is an essential determinant of viral infectivity, tropism and spread between T cells. Lentiviral Env contain an unusually long 150 amino acid cytoplasmic tail (EnvCT), but the function of the EnvCT and many conserved domains within it remain largely uncharacterised. Here, we identified a highly conserved tryptophan motif at position 757 (W757) in the LLP-2 alpha helix of the EnvCT as a key determinant for HIV-1 replication and spread between T cells. Alanine substitution at this position potently inhibited HIV-1 cell–cell spread (the dominant mode of HIV-1 dissemination) by preventing recruitment of Env and Gag to sites of cell–cell contact, inhibiting virological synapse (VS) formation and spreading infection. Single-molecule tracking and super-resolution imaging showed that mutation of W757 dysregulates Env diffusion in the plasma membrane and increases Env mobility. Further analysis of Env function revealed that W757 is also required for Env fusion and infectivity, which together with reduced VS formation, result in a potent defect in viral spread. Notably, W757 lies within a region of the EnvCT recently shown to act as a supporting baseplate for Env. Our data support a model in which W757 plays a key role in regulating Env biology, modulating its temporal and spatial recruitment to virus assembly sites and regulating the inherent fusogenicity of the Env ectodomain, thereby supporting efficient HIV-1 replication and spread.


2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Erdan Dong
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cheerneni Sai Srinivas ◽  
Gayathri Sindhuri Singaraju ◽  
Sayan Das ◽  
Amin Sagar ◽  
Anuj Kumar ◽  
...  

Cis and trans-interactions in cadherins are the foundations of multicellularity. While the trans-interaction mediate cell-cell adhesion, the cis-interaction is postulated as strengthening to trans by clustering. The well-accepted model in cadherin-adhesion is that the trans precedes cis via a diffusion-trap kinetic model. Here we report that cadherin-23, a non-classical cadherin with an extended extracellular region, undergoes clustering in solution via lateral interactions independent of trans and phase separate as liquid droplets. In cellulo using fluorescence-recovery after the photobleaching, we noticed a significantly slow-diffusion of cadherin-23 at the intercellular junctions, indicating the diffusion of a cluster. The cis-clustering accelerates the cell-cell adhesion and, thus, kinetically controls cell-adhesion via cis precedes trans model. Though the connection of cis-clustering with the rapid adhesion is yet to explore, M2-macrophages that predominantly express cadherin-23 undergo fast attachments to circulatory tumor cells during metastasis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Interlandi ◽  
Kornelius Kerl ◽  
Martin Dugas

AbstractDeciphering cell−cell communication is a key step in understanding the physiology and pathology of multicellular systems. Recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics have contributed to unraveling the cellular composition of tissues and enabled the development of computational algorithms to predict cellular communication mediated by ligand−receptor interactions. Despite the existence of various tools capable of inferring cell−cell interactions from single-cell RNA sequencing data, the analysis and interpretation of the biological signals often require deep computational expertize. Here we present InterCellar, an interactive platform empowering lab-scientists to analyze and explore predicted cell−cell communication without requiring programming skills. InterCellar guides the biological interpretation through customized analysis steps, multiple visualization options, and the possibility to link biological pathways to ligand−receptor interactions. Alongside convenient data exploration features, InterCellar implements data-driven analyses including the possibility to compare cell−cell communication from multiple conditions. By analyzing COVID-19 and melanoma cell−cell interactions, we show that InterCellar resolves data-driven patterns of communication and highlights molecular signals through the integration of biological functions and pathways. We believe our user-friendly, interactive platform will help streamline the analysis of cell−cell communication and facilitate hypothesis generation in diverse biological systems.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Julie Firmin ◽  
Nicolas Ecker ◽  
Diane Rivet Danon ◽  
Virginie Barraud Lange ◽  
Herve Turlier ◽  
...  

The shaping of the human embryo begins with compaction, during which cells come into close contact and form a tighter structure. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) studies suggest that human embryos fail compaction primarily because of defective adhesion. Based on our current understanding of animal morphogenesis, other morphogenetic engines, such as cell contractility, could be involved in shaping the human embryo. However, the molecular, cellular and physical mechanisms driving human embryo morphogenesis remain uncharacterized. Using micropipette aspiration on human embryos donated to research, we have mapped cell surface tensions during compaction. This reveals a 4-fold increase of tension at the cell-medium interface while cell-cell contacts keep a steady tension. Comparison between human and mouse reveals qualitatively similar but quantitively different mechanical strategies, with human embryos being mechanically least efficient. Inhibition of cell contractility and cell-cell adhesion in human embryos reveal that only contractility controls the surface tension responsible for compaction. Interestingly, if both cellular processes are required for compaction, they exhibit distinct mechanical signatures when faulty. Analyzing the mechanical signature of naturally failing embryos, we find evidence that non-compacting embryos or partially compacting embryos with excluded cells have defective contractility. Together, our study reveals that an evolutionarily conserved increase in cell contractility is required to generate the forces driving the first morphogenetic movement shaping the human body.


Author(s):  
Nicolas G. Brukman ◽  
Xiaohui Li ◽  
Benjamin Podbilewicz

Gamete fusion is the climax of fertilization in all sexually reproductive organisms, from unicellular fungi to humans. Similarly to other cell-cell fusion events, gamete fusion is mediated by specialized proteins, named fusogens, that overcome the energetic barriers during this process. In recent years, HAPLESS 2/GENERATIVE CELL-SPECIFIC 1 (HAP2/GCS1) was identified as the fusogen mediating sperm-egg fusion in flowering plants and protists, being both essential and sufficient for the membrane merger in some species. The identification of HAP2/GCS1 in invertebrates, opens the possibility that a similar fusogen may be used in vertebrate fertilization. HAP2/GCS1 proteins share a similar structure with two distinct families of exoplasmic fusogens: the somatic Fusion Family (FF) proteins discovered in nematodes, and class II viral glycoproteins (e.g., rubella and dengue viruses). Altogether, these fusogens form the Fusexin superfamily. While some attributes are shared among fusexins, for example the overall structure and the possibility of assembly into trimers, some other characteristics seem to be specific, such as the presence or not of hydrophobic loops or helices at the distal tip of the protein. Intriguingly, HAP2/GCS1 or other fusexins have neither been identified in vertebrates nor in fungi, raising the question of whether these genes were lost during evolution and were replaced by other fusion machinery or a significant divergence makes their identification difficult. Here, we discuss the biology of HAP2/GCS1, its involvement in gamete fusion and the structural, mechanistic and evolutionary relationships with other fusexins.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 290
Author(s):  
Itaru Hashimoto ◽  
Takashi Oshima

Despite recent improvements in diagnostic ability and treatment strategies, advanced gastric cancer (GC) has a high frequency of recurrence and metastasis, with poor prognosis. To improve the treatment results of GC, the search for new treatment targets from proteins related to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell–cell adhesion is currently being conducted. EMT plays an important role in cancer metastasis and is initiated by the loss of cell–cell adhesion, such as tight junctions (TJs), adherens junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions. Among these, claudins (CLDNs) are highly expressed in some cancers, including GC. Abnormal expression of CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN3, CLDN4, CLDN6, CLDN7, CLDN10, CLDN11, CLDN14, CLDN17, CLDN18, and CLDN23 have been reported. Among these, CLDN18 is of particular interest. In The Cancer Genome Atlas, GC was classified into four new molecular subtypes, and CLDN18–ARHGAP fusion was observed in the genomically stable type. An anti-CLDN18.2 antibody drug was recently developed as a therapeutic drug for GC, and the results of clinical trials are highly predictable. Thus, CLDNs are highly expressed in GC as TJs and are expected targets for new antibody drugs. Herein, we review the literature on CLDNs, focusing on CLDN18 in GC.


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