central concept
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Soft Matter ◽  
2022 ◽  
Shintaro Nakagawa ◽  
Jun Xia ◽  
Naoko Yoshie

Transient cross-links such as hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) are a central concept for creating polymers with mechanical functionalities, including toughness and self-healing properties. While conventional strong H-bonding groups are based on...

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 303-312
Raja Bahlul

Abstract In this review of Andrew March’s book, The Caliphate of Man, I shall focus on one central concept and one central claim to be found in the book: the concept of Islamic democracy, and the claim that al-Ghannūshī’s vision of popular sovereignty “reflects a genuine intellectual revolution in modern Islamic thought.” I suggest that the concept of Islamic democracy is logically possible only on the assumption of a purely procedural, value-neutral conception of democracy, and that the vision of the umma [the demos, populus] to be found in al-Ghannūshī is not such as to make the notion of popular sovereignty desirable by modern standards. I will suggest further that liberal Islamist thinkers stand to offer a superior view of Islamic democracy, one toward which al-Ghannūshī himself seems to be moving in his post-Revolutionary political practice.

2021 ◽  
pp. 146879412110651
Kevin A Bartley ◽  
Jeffrey J Brooks

This paper explores a case example of qualitative research that applied productive hermeneutics and the central concept, fusion of horizons. Interpretation of meaning is a fusing of the researchers’ and subjects’ perspectives and serves to expand understanding. The purpose is to illustrate an exemplar of qualitative research without establishing a rigid recipe of methodology. The illustration is based on in-depth observational and textual data from an applied anthropological study conducted in western Alaska with Yup’ik hunters and fishers and government agency employees as they worked towards collaborative management. The metaphor of the hermeneutical circle is showcased to help the reader understand the philosophical underpinnings and the analytical processes used to realize a meaningful interpretation. A series of organizing systems for the interpretation is described, culminating in a final organizing system to communicate a fully realized understanding of collaborative management at the time.

K. T. Kabdesov ◽  
A. V. Maldynova

Commuting is a process that occurs frequently, usually in bigger cities and agglomerations. People living in the periphery tend to travel to work that is located in the center of agglomeration. The choice to commute can vary among the population, and that is explained by internal and external factors such as the economic and financial situation of people, labor market, etc. Even though a routine activity is a central concept of commuting, it takes place in different forms and ways and is impacted by various sociodemographic, economic, and spatial aspects. Hence, it is these social and economic changes in commuting tendencies, characters, and behaviors that this study aims to classify, analyze, and comprehend. Almaty is one of the most populated cities in Kazakhstan. Due to the urbanization processes and urban development, the city captures new territories and becomes an agglomeration. This leads to increased daily human mobility. People living in the periphery of the agglomeration, but working in downtown, travel to their workplace. Therefore, they conduct commuting. Studying commuting is important for the city’s development. The purpose of this article is to identify the characteristics of pendulum migration based on the analysis of the results of a pilot survey conducted in the Almaty region. The methods of descriptive statistics are used for the analysis of the survey results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Daniel F. O'Kennedy

The kingdom of God in the Old Testament: A brief survey. The kingdom of God is a central concept in the teaching of Jesus, but the question posed by this article is the following: What does the Old Testament say about the kingdom of God? Several Old Testament terms convey the concept of kingdom, kingship and rule of God. This article focuses on the Hebrew and Aramaic ‘technical’ terms for kingdom: mamlākâ, malkût, mělûkâ and malkû. One finds only a few Old Testament references where these terms are directly connected to God, most of them in the post-exilic literature: 1 Chronicles 17:14; 28:5; 29:11; 2 Chronicles 13:8; Psalm 22:29; 103:19; 145:11–13; Daniel 2:44; 3:33 (4:3); 4:31 (4:34); 6:27; 7:14, 18, 27; Obadiah 21. A brief study of these specific references leads to a few preliminary conclusions: The kingdom of God refers to a realm and the reign of God, the God of the kingdom is depicted in different ways, God’s kingdom is eternal and incomparable with earthly kingdoms, the scope of the kingdom is particularistic and universalistic, the Old Testament testifies about a kingdom that is and one that is yet to come, et cetera. It seems that there is no real difference when comparing the ‘kingdom of God’ with the ‘God is King’ passages. One cannot unequivocally declare that ‘kingdom of God’ is the central concept in the Old Testament. However, we must acknowledge that Jesus’s teaching about the kingdom of God did not evolve in a vacuum. His followers probably knew about the Old Testament perspective on the kingdom of God.Contribution: The concept ‘kingdom of God’ is relevant for the church in South Africa, especially congregations who strive to be missional. Unfortunately, the Old Testament perspective was neglected in the past. The purpose of this brief survey is to stimulate academics and church leaders in their further reflection on the kingdom of God.

2021 ◽  
pp. 136346152110596
Tiago Pires Marques

In recent decades, there have been many calls for the inclusion of spirituality and religion (S/R) in therapeutic contexts. In some contexts, this has been an institutionalized form of spiritual and religious assistance (SRA). This article examines the concepts and practices involved in SRA services at three psychiatric institutions in Portugal, a country with strong Catholic roots but increasing efforts at secularity and recognition of religious diversity. The case of a user who contacted the SRA service allows us to better grasp this new practice in action. Although some SRA practices have similarities with mindfulness, a systematic comparison allows us to explore the links between SRA and the global dynamics related to S/R in mental health and the particularities of Catholic spirituality. In the contexts observed, the transition from the Catholic hospital chaplaincy system to the SRA model is developing through the integration of features of the Catholic spiritual tradition with concepts and practices drawn from the psychology of religious experience. The accompaniment of the ‘whole person’ emerges as the central concept of this form of SRA. Spirituality gains significance as an integrative approach to the subjectivity fragmented by the illness and the fragmentation of care across multiple clinical specialties. Furthermore, the prioritization of the spiritual needs expressed by users suggests that SRA combines well with the individualistic rationales and the technification of care in the field of mental health.

Quantum ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 601
H. Weisbrich ◽  
M. Bestler ◽  
W. Belzig

Topology in general but also topological objects such as monopoles are a central concept in physics. They are prime examples for the intriguing physics of gauge theories and topological states of matter. Vector monopoles are already frequently discussed such as the well-established Dirac monopole in three dimensions. Less known are tensor monopoles giving rise to tensor gauge fields. Here we report that tensor monopoles can potentially be realized in superconducting multi-terminal systems using the phase differences between superconductors as synthetic dimensions. In a first proposal we suggest a circuit of superconducting islands featuring charge states to realize a tensor monopole. As a second example we propose a triple dot system coupled to multiple superconductors that also gives rise to such a topological structure. All proposals can be implemented with current experimental means and the monopole readily be detected by measuring the quantum geometry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 76-95
Berise Heasly

Abstract The central concept within this research work is Edu-tensegrity. It is the foundation of the Heasly Thinking Skills System and uses a geodesic dome as a refreshed visual depiction of the many varied elements in the whole world of education, given paradigm changes within lived experience of 21st century education. This system uses a disciplined use of the art of Questioning, a ‘ME’ diagram, a fully explained process of decision-making, and finally a detailed diagram called the HUG/BUG for application of personally chosen behaviours. This paper explains the integrated connections of education concepts with similar knowledge content from other relevant academic disciplines. The aim allows for the academic support of teachers and lecturers as these paradigm changes are affected, relying on resilience and the authentic projects of our research communities, who are central to the concept of Edu-tensegrity. Edu-tensegrity is central to the twin concepts of Sustainability and Securitability, adding to the educational philosophy of this journal, and cementing the changing landscape of 21st century education in a time of pandemic and change.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jordi Assens-Serra ◽  
Maria Boada-Cuerva ◽  
María-José Serrano-Fernández ◽  
Esteban Agulló-Tomás

Organizational culture is a central concept in research due to its importance in organizational functioning and suffering of employees. To better manage suffering, it is necessary to better understand the intrinsic characteristics of each type of culture and also its relationships with the environment. In this study, we used the multiple regression analysis to analyze the capacity of eight environment variables, five business strategies, and eight organizational competencies to predict the presence of Clan, Market, and Hierarchy cultures (Cameron and Quinn, 1999) in a subsample of Spanish managers (n1 = 362) and a subsample of Peruvian managers (n2 = 1,317). Contrary to what most of the literature suggests, we found almost no relationship between the environmental variables and the culture types. Strategy and competencies, in contrast, do have a significant predictive capacity, showing 9 links with the Clan culture, 7 with the Hierarchy culture, and 10 with the Market culture. In conclusion, this study has found the important characteristics of the types of organizational culture that could be useful to better manage the suffering of employees.

2021 ◽  
pp. 074873042110582
Matthew J. Hartsock ◽  
Helen K. Strnad ◽  
Robert L. Spencer

Work in recent years has provided strong evidence for the modulation of memory function and neuroplasticity mechanisms across circadian (daily), ultradian (shorter-than-daily), and infradian (longer-than-daily) timescales. Despite rapid progress, however, the field has yet to adopt a general framework to describe the overarching role of biological rhythms in memory. To this end, Iyer and colleagues introduced the term iterative metaplasticity, which they define as the “gating of receptivity to subsequent signals that repeats on a cyclic timebase.” The central concept is that the cyclic regulation of molecules involved in neuroplasticity may produce cycles in neuroplastic capacity—that is, the ability of neural cells to undergo activity-dependent change. Although Iyer and colleagues focus on the circadian timescale, we think their framework may be useful for understanding how biological rhythms influence memory more broadly. In this review, we provide examples and terminology to explain how the idea of iterative metaplasticity can be readily applied across circadian, ultradian, and infradian timescales. We suggest that iterative metaplasticity may not only support the temporal niching of neuroplasticity processes but also serve an essential role in the maintenance of memory function.

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