skin model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 489-493
Author(s):  
Yung-Sheng Yen ◽  
Han-Yi Cheng ◽  
Hung-Ta Lin

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nano-etched surface and diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface acupuncture needles on human pain perception, by finite element method (FEM). Skin models were reconstructed by 3D computer programs. The stress is an important role in acupuncture needle applications for clinical treatment. Many studies have investigated finite element researches for acupuncture; however, few have evaluated a model for acupuncture with and without\ modified surface. The results revealed that abnormal focusing stress was found when acupuncture with nano-etched surface. Moreover, the unbalance stress was found on the top of the skin model in the nano-etched group, the highest stress also appeared in the top region. Acupuncture with nano-etched surface would be an effective means for stimulating skin. These results indicate subtle but significant effects of acupuncture stimulation with nano-etched surface needles, compared to acupuncture with untreated needles in healthy participants.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah Fink ◽  
Anke Burmester ◽  
Uta‐Christina Hipler ◽  
Claudia Neumeister ◽  
Marcus R. Götz ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wen Wang ◽  
Qiaoyun Li ◽  
Zhongqiu Zhao ◽  
Yutong Liu ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
...  

Paeonol is a bioactive phenol presents mainly in Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (Paeoniaceae), Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and Dioscorea japonica Thunb. (Dioscoreaceae), harboring various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immune regulatory activity and reverse chemoresistance. Recent reports revealed paeonol exhibited good effects on chronic dermatitis, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis. However, whether paeonol is effective for dry skin disease and its mechanism of action still remain unclear. In this study, we analysed the effects of paeonol on a mouse model of dry skin treated with acetone-ether-water (AEW), which showed impressive activities in reducing scratching behavior and skin inflammation. To elucidate the underlying molecular targets for the anti-pruritic ability of paeonol, we screened the expression of possible chemokine pathways in the spinal cord. The expression of CXCR3 was significantly alleviated by paeonol, which increased greatly in the spinal neurons of AEW mice. In addition, treatment of paeonol significantly inhibited AEW-induced expression of astrocyte activity-dependent genes including Tlr4, Lcn2 and Hspb1 et al. The inhibitory effects of paeonol on scratching behavior and astrocytic activation in the spinal cord induced by AEW were abolished when CXCR3 was antagonized or genetically ablated. Taken together, our results indicated that paeonol can ameliorate AEW-induced inflammatory response and itching behavior, and reduce the expression of spinal astrocyte activity-dependent genes induced by AEW, which are driven by CXCR3.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yan Lu ◽  
Kaida Xiao ◽  
Jie Yang ◽  
Michael Pointer ◽  
Changjun Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Facial colour characteristics convey vital personal information and influence social interactions and mate choices as contributing factors to perceived beauty, health, and age. How various colour characteristics would affect facial preference and whether there is a cultural difference are not fully understood. Here, we provide a useful and repeatable methodology for skin colour research based on a realistic skin model to investigate the effect of various facial colour characteristics on facial preference and compare the role of colour predictors in Caucasian (CA) and Chinese (CN) populations. Our results show that, although the averaged skin colour of facial areas plays a limited role, together with colour variation and contrast, there are stronger links between colour and facial preference than previously revealed. We also find large cultural differences in facial colour perceptions. Interestingly, Chinese observers tend to rely more heavily on colour cues to judge facial preference than Caucasian observers.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Author(s):  
Natalia Karolina Kordulewska ◽  
Justyna Topa ◽  
Robert Stryiński ◽  
Beata Jarmołowska

The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family signature has been linked to the etiopathology of atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with skin barrier dysfunction and immune system imbalance. We aimed to investigate whether osthole (a plant-derived compound) can inhibit the genetic profile of key genes associated with TLR2 signaling (TIRAP, MyD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, IκBα, NFκB) after stimulation with LPS or histamine in a 3D in vitro model of AD. Overexpression of the aforementioned genes may directly increase the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (CKs) and chemokines (ChKs), which may exacerbate the symptoms of AD. Relative gene expressions were quantified by qPCR and secretion of CKs and ChKs was evaluated by ELISA assay. LPS and histamine increased the relative expression of genes related to the TLR2 pathway, and osthole successfully reduced it. In summary, our results show that osthole inhibits the expression of genes associated with the TLR signaling pathway in a skin model of AD. Moreover, the secretion of CKs and ChKs after treatment of AD with osthole in a 3D skin model in vitro suggests the potential of osthole as a novel compound for the treatment of AD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 299
Author(s):  
Nilakshi Barua ◽  
Lin Huang ◽  
Carmen Li ◽  
Ying Yang ◽  
Mingjing Luo ◽  
...  

The invasion of skin tissue by Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by mechanisms that involve sequential breaching of the different stratified layers of the epidermis. Induction of cell death in keratinocytes is a measure of virulence and plays a crucial role in the infection progression. We established a 3D-organotypic keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture model to evaluate whether a 3D-skin model is more effective in elucidating the differences in the induction of cell death by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than in comparison to 2D-HaCaT monolayers. We investigated the difference in adhesion, internalization, and the apoptotic index in HaCaT monolayers and our 3D-skin model using six strains of MRSA representing different clonal types, namely, ST8, ST30, ST59, ST22, ST45 and ST239. All the six strains exhibited internalization in HaCaT cells. Due to cell detachment, the invasion study was limited up to two and a half hours. TUNEL assay showed no significant difference in the cell death induced by the six MRSA strains in the HaCaT cells. Our 3D-skin model provided a better insight into the interactions between the MRSA strains and the human skin during the infection establishment as we could study the infection of MRSA in our skin model up to 48 h. Immunohistochemical staining together with TUNEL assay in the 3D-skin model showed co-localization of the bacteria with the apoptotic cells demonstrating the induction of apoptosis by the bacteria and revealed the variation in bacterial transmigration among the MRSA strains. The strain representing ST59 showed maximum internalization in HaCaT cells and the maximum cell death as measured by Apoptotic index in the 3D-skin model. Our results show that 3D-skin model might be more likely to imitate the physiological response of skin to MRSA infection than 2D-HaCaT monolayer keratinocyte cultures and will enhance our understanding of the difference in pathogenesis among different MRSA strains.


Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Author(s):  
Nilakshi Barua ◽  
Ying Yang ◽  
Lin Huang ◽  
Margaret Ip

The vancomycin-resistance associated sensor/regulator, VraSR two-component regulatory-system (VraSR), regulates virulence and the response of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to environmental stress. To investigate the role of VraSR in SA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), we inactivated the VraSR of a clinical CA-MRSA ST30 strain by insertional mutation in vraR gene using the TargeTron-Gene Knockout System. We constructed an organotypic keratinocyte fibroblast co-culture (3D-skin model) and a humanized mouse as SSTI infection models. In the 3D-skin model, inactivation of VraSR in the strains ST30 and USA300 showed 1-log reduction in adhesion and internalization (p < 0.001) compared to the respective wildtype. The mutant strains of ST30 (p < 0.05) and USA300-LAC (p < 0.001) also exhibited reduced apoptosis. The wildtype ST30 infection in the humanized mouse model demonstrated increased skin lesion size and bacterial burden compared to BALB/c mice (p < 0.01). The response of the humanized mouse towards the MRSA infection exhibited human similarity indicating that the humanized mouse SSTI model is more suitable for evaluating the role of virulence determinants. Inactivation of VraSR in ST30 strain resulted in decreased skin lesion size in the humanized mouse SSTI model (p < 0.05) and reduction in apoptotic index (p < 0.01) when compared with the wildtype. Our results reveal that inactivating the VraSR system may be a potent anti-virulence approach to control MRSA infection.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
David Welch ◽  
Marilena Aquino de Muro ◽  
Manuela Buonanno ◽  
David J Brenner

The effectiveness of UVC to reduce airborne-mediated disease transmission is well-established. However conventional germicidal UVC (~254 nm) cannot be used directly in occupied spaces because of the potential for damage to the skin and eye. A recently studied alternative with the potential to be used directly in occupied spaces is far-UVC (200 to 235 nm, typically 222 nm), as it cannot penetrate to the key living cells in the epidermis. Optimal far-UVC use is hampered by limited knowledge of the precise wavelength dependence of UVC-induced DNA damage, and thus we have used a monochromatic UVC exposure system to assess wavelength-dependent DNA damage in a realistic 3-D human skin model. We exposed a 3-D human skin model to mono-wavelength UVC exposures of 100 mJ/cm2, at UVC wavelengths from 215 to 255 nm (5-nm steps). At each wavelength we measured yields of DNA-damaged keratinocytes, and their distribution within the layers of the epidermis. No increase in DNA damage was observed in the epidermis at wavelengths from 215 to 235 nm, but at higher wavelengths (240-255 nm) significant levels of DNA damage were observed. These results support use of far-UVC light to safely reduce the risk of airborne disease transmission in occupied locations.


Dermato ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 47-58
Author(s):  
Katrine Baumann ◽  
Niels Peter Hell Knudsen ◽  
Anne-Sofie Østergaard Gadsbøll ◽  
Anders Woetmann ◽  
Per Stahl Skov

Skin-barrier restoration following abrasive trauma is facilitated by mediator release from skin-resident cells, a process that has been investigated primarily in mice or simplified human systems with previous studies focusing on a limited number of biomarkers. Here, we demonstrate how early events caused by skin-barrier disruption can be studied in a human ex vivo skin model. Ten relevant biomarkers were recovered from the interstitial fluid by skin microdialysis with subsequent sample analysis using a multiplex platform. As a control, the biomarker profiles obtained from microdialysis sampling were compared to profiles of skin biopsy homogenates. We found that nine (GM-CSF, CXCL1/GROα, CXCL8/IL-8 CXCL10/IP-10, IL-1α, IL-6, MIF, TNF-α, and VEGF) of the 10 biomarkers were significantly upregulated in response to abrasive trauma. Only dialysate levels of CCL27/CTACK were unaffected by skin abrasion. Biomarker levels in the homogenates corresponded to dialysate levels for CCL27/CTACK, CXCL1/GROα, CXCL8/IL-8, and IL-6. However, IL-1α showed an inverse trend in response to trauma, and biopsy levels of MIF were unchanged. GM-CSF, CXCL10/IP-10, TNF-α, and VEGF were not detected in the biopsy homogenates. Our results suggest that the human ex vivo skin model is a reliable approach to study early events after disruption of the skin barrier.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12973
Author(s):  
Nobuaki Okumura ◽  
Takashi Ito ◽  
Tomomi Degawa ◽  
Mariko Moriyama ◽  
Hiroyuki Moriyama

Royal jelly (RJ) is secreted by honeybees and has been used as an apitherapy to obtain healthy skin since ancient times. However, the mechanism of the protective effects of RJ against skin aging and skin diseases caused by skin stress and its components have not been clarified. In this study, we attempted to understand the effect of RJ on epidermal function and observed that NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) is significantly induced by RJ in keratinocytes. The expression of NQO1 was also increased in the 3D epidermal skin model. NQO1 is involved in antioxidation and detoxification metabolism, and we found that RJ protects against the epidermal stress caused by UVB and menadione through the upregulation of NQO1. We identified 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA), a major fatty acid in RJ, as an active compound in this reaction as it induced the expression of NQO1 and protected the skin against oxidative stress. We demonstrated that the protective effect of RJ against epidermal stress is mediated through the upregulation of NQO1 by 10H2DA.


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