Probiotic Properties
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Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2548
Vidhya Prakash ◽  
Akshaya S Krishnan ◽  
Reshma Ramesh ◽  
Chinchu Bose ◽  
Girinath G. Pillai ◽  

Value-added phytochemicals from food by-products and waste materials have gained much interest and among them, dietary polyphenolic compounds with potential biological properties extend a promising sustainable approach. Oxyresveratrol (Oxy), a stilbenoid polyphenol, possesses great therapeutic potential, though its pharmacokinetic issues need attention. A good source of oxyresveratrol was found in underutilized coconut shells and the synbiotic applications of the compound in combination with a potential probiotic isolate Limosilactobacillus fermentum ASBT-2 was investigated. The compound showed lower inhibitory effects on the strain with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1000 µg/mL. Oxyresveratrol at sub-MIC concentrations (500 µg/mL and 250 µg/mL) enhanced the probiotic properties without exerting any inhibitory effects on the strain. The combination at sub- MIC concentration of the compound inhibited Salmonella enterica and in silico approaches were employed to elucidate the possible mode of action of oxy on the pathogen. Thus, the combination could target pathogens in the gut without exerting negative impacts on growth of beneficial strains. This approach could be a novel perspective to address the poor pharmacokinetic properties of the compound.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 9867
Mihaela Dumitru ◽  
Dan Cristian Vodnar ◽  
Simon Elemer ◽  
Georgeta Ciurescu ◽  
Mihaela Habeanu ◽  

A total of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the broiler chicken’s gastrointestinal tract. All isolates were phenotypical and genetically identified. Among these isolates, only six were biochemical (API 50 CHL and ABIS soft) and genetically (16S rRNA sequencing) confirmed as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, Levilactobacillus brevis, and Ligilactobacillus salivarius. Probiotic properties, including tolerance to pH (pH 2.0 and 3.0), bile salts (0.3% oxgall), hemolysis activity, and antibiotic susceptibility, were evaluated. Three isolates of the latter isolates showed high resistance at low pH values (73.74% to 98.20%) and bile salt concentrations (77.89% to 99.49%). The antibiotic test presented 100% resistance of LAB to gentamicin, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, and streptomycin lower than the 0.5 mm inhibition zone diameter. Selected strains (L. acidophilus IBNA 64, L. salivarius IBNA 33, and L. salivarius IBNA 41) were exposed to the spray-drying process based on observable probiotic potential. A maltodextrin-glucose solution was used as a thermoprotectant. After spray drying, a reduction in strain viability was noted (108 to 104 CFU/g). In conclusion, only L. salivarius (IBNA 33 and IBNA 41) could be used as a possible probiotic, and further studies are needed to ensure their safe application in the animal nutrition field with beneficial effects for improving performance and pathogen microorganism control from intestines equilibrating the microbiota composition.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 238
Sung-Joon Mo ◽  
Bora Nam ◽  
Chu-Hyun Bae ◽  
Soo-Dong Park ◽  
Jae-Jung Shim ◽  

Red ginseng has powerful potential for use as a prebiotic, but its use is limited due to its antibacterial activity. The aim of this study is to present panax ginseng’s endophytic lactic acid bacteria capable to overcome the antibacterial activity of red ginseng and improve their characteristic. Lactobacillus paracasei HY7017 (HY7017) was cultured in a medium supplemented with red ginseng. The probiotic properties and immune-enhancing effects of HY7017 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. HY7017 was proliferated strongly in RGE and had significantly improved properties compared with an L. paracasei type strain ATCC25302. HY7017 cultured in RGE-supplemented medium increased the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages, and increased IL-12 and IFN-γ secretion in splenocytes. Furthermore, HY7017 restored WBC counts, increased the amount of IL-2 and IFN-γ released, and enhanced the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells when orally administered to immunosuppressed mice. Moreover, HY7017 has properties that make it suitable as a probiotic, such as stability in the gastrointestinal tract and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. This study showed that HY7017 cultured with RGE may contribute to the development of probiotics to enhance immunity.

Iraj Hasani ◽  
Abbas Akhavan Sepahi ◽  
Shahram Shoeibi ◽  
Gholamhassan Asadi Aghdash

Different strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most common micro-organisms known as probiotics. Two major kinds of probiotic bacteria are members of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, that are generally associated with the genus Lactobacillus which play a vital role in the body health, as well as the ability to produce antimicrobials and vitamins in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of the study was the isolation of probiotics in traditional cheeses that are produced from the natural flora of the newborn mammalian digestive tract. Bacteria from lamb and kid abomasum are added to milk. The curd is slaughtered from the abomasum of a lamb or kid that is suckling and has now no longer began out to devour forage, after which its belly is dried, that is referred to as curd. In this study, sixteen samples of cheeses local to Markazi province of Iran have been prepared. The isolated bacteria have been examined for morphological, biochemical, probiotic properties, and molecular identity. Out of sixteen traditional cheese samples, five kinds of Lactobacillus have been diagnosed through PCR. L. casei strain J026 strain was identified in the traditional cheese samples as the most genera. Using probiotic starters from local sources is a beneficial strategy for producing traditional cheese, which the native strains are more compatible with the humans’ intestinal flora and therefore may also higher play their probiotic’s characteristic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 2158
Marina Georgalaki ◽  
Georgia Zoumpopoulou ◽  
Rania Anastasiou ◽  
Maria Kazou ◽  
Effie Tsakalidou

One of the main lactic acid bacterial species found in the kefir grain ecosystem worldwide is Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, exhibiting strong auto-aggregation capacity and, therefore, being involved in the mechanism of grain formation. Its occurrence and dominance in kefir grains of various types of milk and geographical origins have been verified by culture-dependent and independent approaches using multiple growth media and regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively, highlighting the importance of their combination for its taxonomic identification. L. kefiranofaciens comprises two subspecies, namely kefiranofaciens and kefirgranum, but only the first one is responsible for the production of kefiran, the water-soluble polysaccharide, which is a basic component of the kefir grain and famous for its technological as well as health-promoting properties. L. kefiranofaciens, although very demanding concerning its growth conditions, can be involved in mechanisms affecting intestinal health, immunomodulation, control of blood lipid levels, hypertension, antimicrobial action, and protection against diabetes and tumors. These valuable bio-functional properties place it among the most exquisite candidates for probiotic use as a starter culture in the production of health-beneficial dairy foods, such as the kefir beverage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Esther Alonso García ◽  
Juan José de la Fuente Ordoñez ◽  
Leyre Lavilla Lerma ◽  
María D. Estudillo-Martínez ◽  
Sonia Castillo-Gutiérrez ◽  

In this study, we determined whether pre-adapting Lactiplantibacillus pentosus strains, isolated from Aloreña green table olives, to vegetable-based edible oils improved their robustness and functionality; this may have great importance on their stress response during fermentation, storage, and digestion. Pre-adapting the strains to the corresponding oils significantly increased their probiotic functionality (e.g., auto-aggregation, co-aggregation with pathogens, and mucin adhesion), although results depended on the strain and the oil used for pre-adaptation. As such, we selected olive-adapted (TO) L. pentosus AP2-16, which exhibited improved functionality, and subjected it to transcriptomic profiling with the aim to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation and the increased functionality. Global transcriptomic analysis of oil-adapted (olive or almond) and non-adapted (control) L. pentosus AP2-16 realized that 3,259 genes were expressed, with 2,779 mapped to the reference database. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that 125 genes (olive vs. control) and 108 genes (olive vs. almond) became significantly differentially expressed. TO L. pentosus AP2-16 responded by rerouting its metabolic pathways to balance energy production and storage, cell growth and survivability, host interactions (glycoconjugates), and other physiological features. As such, the pre-adaptation of lactobacilli with olive oil switches their transcriptional network to regulate robustness and functionality, possibly representing a novel approach toward the design and manufacture of probiotic products with improved stability and functionality.

2021 ◽  
Z. Alkay ◽  
E. Dertli ◽  
M.Z. Durak

Abstract In this study, 14 yeast cultures from 62 isolates from traditional sourdoughs collected from 6 different regions of Turkey were selected by FT-IR identification and characterised to reveal their probiotic properties. Four yeast strains were genotypically identified and compared with FT-IR identification. In all analyses, it was observed that mostly Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain exhibited high hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation feature, and all yeast isolates in this study showed tolerance to 0.3%, even salt concentration. In addition, all yeast strains were susceptible to anti-yeasts agents, although they were resistant to all antibiotics used in the study. All selected yeast isolates exhibited high antimicrobial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, this study investigated the potential probiotic properties of yeast strains isolated from sourdough.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3513
Joanna Suliburska ◽  
Iskandar Azmy Harahap ◽  
Katarzyna Skrypnik ◽  
Paweł Bogdański

Although probiotics have been discovered in numerous diseases in the last decade, there is little consensus on the relationship between probiotic properties and minerals balance and their distribution in the organism. This research aimed to evaluate the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) status in rats on a diet containing multispecies probiotics. Thirty male 10-week-old Wistar rats were selected and divided into three groups (n = 10 rats)—a group fed a standard diet (C), a group fed a low-dose of multispecies probiotics with 2.5 × 109 CFU per day (LD), and a group fed high-dose of multispecies probiotics 1 × 1010 CFU per day (HD) for 6 weeks. The results revealed that HD intake significantly increased the Ca concentration in hair and Mg concentration in femur bones. A significant positive correlation was found between calcium and magnesium levels in hair. The Ca/Mg molar ratio was lower in testicles in the groups with probiotics. In conclusion, multispecies probiotics altered the Ca concentration in hair and Mg level in femur bone, and also changed the molar ratio of these elements in testicles in male rats.

Marianne Stage ◽  
Yan Hui ◽  
Dennis Sandris Nielsen ◽  
Natalia Ivonne Vera-Jiménez ◽  
Jeanne Olsen ◽  

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG is a widely marketed probiotic with well-documented probiotic properties. Previously, deletion of the mucus-adhesive spaCBA-srt C1 genes was reported in dairy isolates. Here, we examined the genome preservation of industrially-produced L. rhamnosus GG (DSM 33156) co-fermented in yogurts. In total, DNA of 66 samples, including 60 isolates, was sequenced. Population samples and 59 isolates exhibited an intact genome. One isolate exhibited loss of spaCBA-srt C1. In addition, we examined phenotypes related to the probiotic properties of L. rhamnosus GG either from frozen pellets or co-fermented in yogurt. L. rhamnosus GG from frozen pellets induced a response in intestinal barrier function in vitro , in contrast to frozen pellets of the starter culture. Yogurt matrix, containing only the starter culture, induced a response, but co-fermentation with L. rhamnosus GG induced a higher response. Conversely, only the starter culture stimulated cytokine secretion in dendritic cells, and it was observed that the addition of L. rhamnosus GG to the starter culture reduced the response. We conclude that the L. rhamnosus GG genome is preserved in yogurt and that common in vitro probiotic effects of L. rhamnosus GG are observed when examined in the yogurt matrix. Importance Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG is a well-documented probiotic strain recognized for its high acid and bile tolerance and adhesion properties to enterocytes and mucus. The strain exhibits SpaCBA pili, which have been demonstrated to play an important role in adhesion and therefore are relevant for persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently we demonstrated that the genome and phenotypes of L. rhamnosus GG are preserved throughout an industrial production pipeline. However, as gene deletions in L. rhamnosus GG were previously reported in isolates from dairy products, a key question on the genomic stability of L. rhamnosus GG in a yogurt matrix remained. The aim of this study was to analyze genome stability and phenotypic characteristics of L. rhamnosus GG in yogurt. We found that the genome of L. rhamnosus GG is well conserved when co-fermented in yogurt. Some phenotypic characteristics are consistent in all product matrixes, while other characteristics are modulated.

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