Over the last thirty years, technology has created a new space (cyberspace) where people meet each other, seek information, or simply try to navigate through. However, there is no consensus in research on the character of cyberspaces and the extent to which they are real. In the first systematic empirical research of this nature, the study found an answer to this question through a survey of metaphorical accounts of university students in Information Studies, and Librarianship (N=102) collected over three years (2019-2021). Cyberspace is a real space in students' experiences, language, and thought structures. A space that allows movement, orientation, and search to be related with one another. An environment in which cognition, learning, and knowledge are structuring activities. Learning and cognition in this space occur differently than in the physical environment, which poses a challenge for developing specific didactic practices and social programs for students. Students perceive cyberspace as linked to the need to acquire new epistemic tools to help them overcome the crisis of knowledge they experience through this space.
Keywords: cyberspace, didactic practices, information literacy, metaphors, pragmatism, tacit knowledge, on life
Outbreak of COVID-19, online examination, and e-proctoring have caused more exam anxiety and affected exam performance among students’ studying in International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP). Therefore, the present research aimed to find effect of online test anxiety on academic performance of IBDP students in the subjects related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Study employed quantitative descriptive survey research design and administered survey questionnaire to 200 IB DP students who took online test during COVID-19 through convenient sampling technique. Sample included both first and final year DP students with due representation to boys and girls. Results of the study revealed a moderate negative correlation between online test anxiety and academic performance of IBDP students in STEM subjects. Regression analysis explained 14.1% variation in the STEM subject performance because of online exam anxiety under e-proctored condition. There exists a statistically significant difference between first and final year students’ online exam anxiety and STEM subject average grades. Future research may focus on conducting comfortable online examination methods with no additional exam anxieties.
Keywords: International Baccalaureate (IB), Diploma Programme (DP), e-proctored test, virtual examination
Flow experience is related to well-being. Still, the question arises as to whether the flow is beneficial because of its intensity and frequency, or its contribution to well-being depends on the domain in which it is experienced. It was hypothesized that flow experienced in a domain that is perceived important and useful (i.e., the academic domain) contributes more to students’ well-being than flow experienced in domains that are perceived as less important and less useful (leisure and routine activities) even though it is in academic domain experienced less often and less intensely. This hypothesis was tested in two separate studies. In the first study, the flow was operationalized as a trait and the frequency of flow was measured via questionnaires. In the second study, the flow was operationalized as a state and the intensity of flow was measured via the experience sampling method. The samples were comprised of university students from Zagreb, Croatia. Both studies showed that flow in a domain that is perceived as more important and useful (i.e., the academic domain), although is experienced less often and less strongly, is more related to students’ well-being than flow in domains perceived by students as less important and less useful (leisure and routine activities). It was also tested if the association between academic flow and well-being is mediated by academic achievement. This hypothesis was not accepted. The results of this study indicate that it is important for students to have opportunities to experience flow in their studies because it is a pleasant state, related to better achievement, and it adds to their overall well-being.
Keywords: flow experience, sampling method, flourishing, flow in learning, life satisfaction, optimal experience
It is important to determine the behaviors of primary school pre-service teachers, who have successfully completed the "Mathematics Textbook Review" course during their undergraduate education, regarding the use of textbooks in their professional life. Therefore, it is important to determine the approaches of pre-service teachers who have positive ideas about using the mathematics textbook in their undergraduate education and the reasons for these approaches in the process after starting the profession. This research was designed with a developmental perspective from qualitative research approaches and was conducted with two different study groups in Turkey. The first study group consists of 162 primary school mathematics pre-service teachers. The second group consists of 43 primary school mathematics teachers who worked for at least two years in their professional life. As a result of the research, more than half of the pre-service teachers (n=132) stated that they would use textbooks as a basic resource in the in-class teaching process. Pre-service teachers' reasons for using the course book in the classroom teaching process were grouped under four categories: "it is a guide for teaching, homework, affordability, and opportunity for repetition". When the data obtained from the mathematics teachers were examined, it was determined that most of the teachers did not use the textbook as the main source in the classroom teaching process. When the obtained data are examined holistically, it is concluded that even though the rate of pre-service teachers thinking of using the textbook is high, this rate will decrease in professional life.
Keywords: Pre-service teachers, mathematics teacher, mathematics textbook, developmental perspective
In secondary school, where students begin to be more interested in physics, chemistry and biology, it is an important issue how their interests are in terms of all three subject areas according to grade levels. The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate the interest of secondary school students in the concepts of physics, chemistry and biology taught in science classes by grade level. The participants included 251 students enrolled in 16 different classrooms in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades in a boarding secondary school located in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. The study was carried out as a developmental study in single screening model. For compliance with the research pattern, study data were collected with a questionnaire consisting of four open-ended questions, and the questionnaire was given to the students in order to find out their thoughts on the matter under consideration. In addition, the students were asked to draw a picture depicting the place and importance of science in their life and to explain their drawings briefly in writing. The data obtained from the open-ended questionnaire and drawings were analyzed through content analysis. The collected data were classified in categories and themes, and matrices were generated accordingly. In addition, frequency and percentage analysis was performed. As a result, science was found to be mostly associated with concepts regarding biology discipline by the students. Also, overall interest level was found to be higher with physics and biology topics at all grade levels studied here.
Keywords: content analysis, science interest, science subjects, secondary school students
This study examined a proposed model of employment quality among female immigrants after their participation in vocational training in Taiwan, drawing on the developmental-contextual model of career development. It simultaneously tested the relationship between the distal contextual variable (i.e., perceived Taiwanese attitudes toward immigrant women (PTAs)), proximal contextual variables (i.e., vocational training experiences (VTEs) and social support (SS)), the individual-level variable (i.e., self-perceived employability (SPE)), and employment quality (EQ) in the model. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 447 female immigrant trainees who had worked for over 6 months after vocational training in Taiwan. The results supported the proposed model based on the developmental-contextual approach, which explained 56.9% of the variance in EQ. The results further revealed that PTAs positively affected SPE, VTEs and SS. In turn, VTEs and SS positively directly and indirectly affected EQ through their impacts on SPE, and SPE positively influenced EQ. The three most important factors that determined the EQ of immigrant women who participated in vocational training were VTEs, SPE, and PTAs.
Keywords: career development, employment quality, immigrant women, vocational training
The research focuses on examining the use of the interpretation of works of art in pre-school education in three dimensions - the current state of the use of the interpretation of works of art, the opinions of kindergarten teachers on art, and the opportunities for kindergarten teachers to acquire knowledge about the theory and history of art in their undergraduate training or in other forms of education. The aim of the research was to determine a correlation between the aforementioned variables. 366 kindergarten teachers responded to the items of the self-constructed questionnaire. It has been proven that the current state of the use of the interpretation of works of art in pre-school education can be described as below average, the opportunities for kindergarten teachers to acquire knowledge from the theory and history of art in their pre-graduate training or in other forms of education were lower than average, and the opinions of kindergarten teachers on art can also be described as below average. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between the aforementioned dimensions of the interpretation of works of art in pre-school education.
Keywords: empirical experience, kindergarten teacher, pre-school education, works of art
Because of the Covid-19 outbreak, all academic institutions all over the world swiftly shifted to reconstitute the presentation of their courses that customarily took place on campus. This study explored the kind of online professional identities that English teachers in private language institutes constructed during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Additionally, it examined possible impacts of adopting online solutions on teachers’ performance and teaching skills and their perceptions of communities of practice and their effect on their PI in online classes during this period. The study was conducted on 35 English teachers, teaching English in language institutes in Yazd, Iran. The study followed a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually and also in groups, to gain access to their lived experiences of running online classes. Results revealed four main characteristics that (re)constructed and affected teachers’ PI in online classes, namely, teachers’ role, competency and self-effectiveness, appreciation and connection, and future plans. The findings also revealed that streamlined communication and communities of practice were very beneficial in (re)constructing their changing identities in online classes. Membership in communities of practice was found to be an essential action to make teachers’ teaching skills and social learning better and share common experiences. The results showed that these aspects highly influence the teachers’ reconstruction of PI in a positive way in language institutes.
Keywords: communities of practice, English as a foreign language, language institute, online professional identity, qualitative approach
Guided reading (GR) approach has been shown to have positive effect on reading fluency and comprehension. However, most studies on GR have focused on primary schools, specifically the Foundation Phase. Therefore, this study employed the GR approach to examine its possible effects on the reading proficiencies of Grade 9 English Second Language (ESL) learners in Gauteng province. Social and cognitive constructivism underpinned the study, which employed action research to determine the possible effects of implementing GR on the reading proficiencies of a sample of eight Grade 9 ESL learners who were purposively selected to participate in this study. Data were collected through interviews, observations, and reflection cards, oral and written reading tests. Results indicated that GR approach had caused a significant improvement in these learners’ reading fluency and comprehension because of collaborative learning and scaffolding. In addition, GR also developed a sense of ownership in their learning, a sense of community and innovative and inquisitive minds. The study recommends that learners who struggle with reading be identified early, and GR intervention strategies be implemented and monitored. Every school needs to have a reading policy and the Education Department should ensure that it is implemented and monitored.
Keywords: guided reading, reading proficiencies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, second language
Infection with sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are risks associated with adolescents’ risky sexual behavior. Mental models of attachment relationships influence behavior and may influence adolescents’ involvement in sexual activities that are risky. This study explored whether attachment styles predicted adolescents’ involvement in risky sexual behavior. A correlational study design was adopted with 367 students from public secondary schools in Nairobi County taking part in the study. The Attachment Styles Questionnaire and Risky Sexual Behavior Scale were used to collect data. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether secure, preoccupied, dismissing or fearful attachment styles predicted students’ risky sexual behavior. The study found that preoccupied attachment style and secure attachment style had predictive effects on risky sexual behavior. Preoccupied attachment style was predictive of greater involvement in risky sexual behavior whereas secure attachment style was predictive of less risky sexual behavior. It was evident based on the findings that secure attachment style was protective against risky sexual behavior whereas preoccupied attachment style created vulnerability to risky sexual behavior. It was recommended that special attention should be paid to adolescents with insecure attachment styles in guidance and counseling programs aimed at discouraging adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and parents/guardians should be encouraged to be more nurturing towards their children in order to encourage formation of secure attachment which was protective against risky sexual behavior.
Keywords: attachment styles, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, secure attachment, risky sexual behavior