balkan countries
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nina Pereza ◽  
Rifet Terzić ◽  
Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska ◽  
Olivera Miljanović ◽  
Ivana Novaković ◽  

Introduction: In this study we aimed to perform the first research on the current state of compulsory basic and clinical courses in genetics for medical students offered at medical faculties in six Balkan countries with Slavic languages (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia).Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from June to September 2021. One representative from each country was invited to collect and interpret the data for all medical faculties in their respective country. All representatives filled a questionnaire, which consisted of two sets of questions. The first set of questions was factual and contained specific questions about medical faculties and design of compulsory courses, whereas the second set of questions was more subjective and inquired the opinion of the representatives about mandatory education in clinical medical genetics in their countries and internationally. In addition, full course syllabi were analysed for course aims, learning outcomes, course content, methods for student evaluation and literature.Results: Detailed analysis was performed for a total of 22 medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina (6), Croatia (4), Montenegro (1), North Macedonia (3), Serbia (6), and Slovenia (2). All but the two medical faculties in Slovenia offer either compulsory courses in basic education in human genetics (16 faculties/courses) or clinical education in medical genetics (3 faculties/courses). On the other hand, only the medical faculty in Montenegro offers both types of education, including one course in basic education in human genetics and one in clinical education in medical genetics. Most of the basic courses in human genetics have similar aims, learning outcomes and content. Conversely, clinical courses in medical genetics are similar concerning study year position, number of contact hours, ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) and contents, but vary considerably regarding aims, learning outcomes, ratio of types of classes, teaching methods and student evaluation.Conclusion: Our results emphasise the need for future collaboration in reaching a consensus on medical genetics education in Balkan countries with Slavic languages. Further research warrants the analysis of performance of basic courses, as well as introducing clinical courses in medical genetics to higher years of study across Balkan countries.

2022 ◽  
Mirjana Štrbac ◽  
Vladimir Vuković ◽  
Aleksandra Patić ◽  
Snežana Medić ◽  
Tatjana Pustahija ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 191-208
Bruno Ferreira Costa

The accession of the Balkan countries to the European Union is a desire and objective of several political leaders and a commitment of the European institutions themselves. This path represents one of the objectives of the Republic of Serbia, and negotiations are currently taking place regarding compliance with the different accession chapters. Serbia's integration entails several challenges, being a decisive instrument to heal the wounds of the Balkan War and an opportunity to rebuild political, social, diplomatic, and economic relations across the region. This chapter sets out to discover these challenges and seeks to analyze the current moment of negotiation, outlining the possible paths for the country's integration into the European Union and the respective impact on subsequent negotiations with other Balkan States. Among the remaining doubts regarding the integration of the Serbian State and the conviction that the path of the European Union inevitably passes through this integration, what challenges will the negotiation face in the coming years?

2022 ◽  
pp. 42-73
Nada Dragović ◽  
Tijana Vulević ◽  
Muhamed Bajrić ◽  
Johannes Huebl ◽  
Paolo Porto ◽  

The EU countries are obliged to harmonize their legislation in the field of flood protection, and thus torrential floods, in accordance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) which was adopted in 2000. Two EU countries, Austria and Italy, and three Western Balkan countries were selected for the strategic and legal framework of torrential flood control: Serbia, North Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition to the legal framework of torrential flood control in EU countries, policies and strategies related to this area were studied for comparative analysis with non-EU countries. The strategic framework for the protection of water resources, and in particular torrential flood protection, is lacking in all Western Balkan countries. The aim of this chapter is to determine the directions of future strategic directions and torrential flood control policies in the Western Balkans based on the experiences of EU countries, advantages and disadvantages of the existing strategic, and legal frameworks.

2022 ◽  
pp. 111-134
Anatoliy Khudoliy

The purpose of the chapter is to assess and link the issues of migration flows with the accession process of the Balkan countries and the European Union enlargement policy. The chapter argues that despite the recent changes in the EU commission's policy towards the candidate countries there is more to be done to foster the process and encourage domestic reforms in the countries. The chapter examines the process of migration along the Balkan migration route from 2001 till 2021 and its influence on the European Union policy and the policy of Balkan countries. The author links the issue of migration flows with the accession process of the Balkan countries, traces the connection between the issue of migration flows with the European Union enlargement, and analyzes the legal steps taken by the EU and the countries of the region in order to control the process of migration.

2022 ◽  
pp. 153-170
Sinem Bal

The EU's extra-territorial, value-driven practices are often conceptualized as normative power. However, the diffusion of norms is strongly contested in terms of human rights. This is particularly true of gender equality, which the EU uses as a conditionality tool to promote human rights, consolidate democracy, and develop a well-functioning fair market economy in other countries. Using a feminist lens and drawing on the literature and official documents, this chapter questions the balance between these three aims and the extent that Europe's normative power can mainstream gender norms in Western Balkan countries. Backsliding of equality patterns and the EU's exclusive concern on producing instruments to encourage women's labour market participation indicate that it promotes more market-engaged gender equality norms instead of creating normative change in socially constructed roles in Western Balkan countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 86-92

Globalization does not have the same impact on countries, it acts differently in countries with different levels of political, economic, social and technological development. Its unequal distribution by region, country or community confirms that it is a complex and deeply asymmetric process. It is confirmed by numerous theories and debates that only explained and defined the phenomenon, but paid little attention to the complexity of globalization and measuring its extent. Empirical indicators can be used to measure the differences between the national and the international in different domains. In this way, it is possible to see to what extent the countries are globalized, i.e., to see the strong influence of globalization processes on the overall state of society. That is why a large number of countries try to use the processes of globalization to promote national interests and improve their position in international relations. Therefore, the analysis of the indexes of globalization will help us to understand with which components of national power the countries dominate on the regional and global scene. The focus of the research is on the analysis of several globalization indexes that include the countries of the Western Balkan. Namely, the degree of globalization of countries is empirically analyzed through the prism of several different indicators that are constructed to measure the overall index of globalization, as well as to measure the political, economic and social dimension of globalization. The inclusion of a larger number of variables enables a more objective and accurate ranking of countries. As the results of the globalization rating of the Western Balkan countries show, it is concluded that the processes of globalization greatly contribute to strengthening and improving cooperation between countries, intensify interdependence, affect Euro-Atlantic integration processes, stimulate economic growth and improve the situation in societies. However, according to the elaborated data, these countries are still in the phase of adjustment or “maturation”, therefore, they are in the category of partially globalized countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 37-58
Marina Matić Bošković ◽  
Jelena Kostić

The rule of law is incorporated in the EU Founding Treaties and case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU and was included as a key requirement already in 1993 Copenhagen accession criteria. The EU enlargement is not only territorial increase, but also transposition of EU acquis to third countries. Since 1993, the monitoring mechanism of the rule of law reform in the EU accession countries was enhanced, including two specific negotiation chapters, Chapter 23 – judiciary and fundamental rights and Chapter 24 – justice, freedom and security. Over the last two decades, the EU was struggling to develop an adequate mechanism in this area, from mechanism for coordination and verification, to action plans for Chapter 23, to more specific tools like perception and experience surveys of the judiciary and functional reviews. Due to the challenges to measure progress and track record in the rule of law, in February 2020 the European Commission presented the new approach to EU Enlargement that aims to push reforms forward. The intention is to make the accession negotiations more credible, predictable and dynamic and criteria for assessing reforms in the accession countries will be based on the clearer criteria and more concise EU requirements. The article examines how EU enlargement policies influenced the rule of law reforms in Western Balkan countries over the years and what could be expected from the new approach. The research hypothesis is based on the correlation between Enlargement strategy towards the Western Balkans and its impact on rule of law in countries of the mentioned region. The methodological approach applied in the assessment is based on analysis of Enlargement strategy and other EU and national documents, as well as results of the work of judicial institutions in order to provide insight into the bottlenecks of the state rule of law in Western Balkan countries and enable identification of recommendations for improvement. The authors concluded that the new methodology would improve the measurability of the achieved results in the rule of law area, however, the approach might slow down the accession process of Serbia and Montenegro as a frontrunners in the process.

Agata Domachowska ◽  

For many years, the priority of foreign policy determined by subsequent governments of the six Western Balkan countries, i.e., Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia has been their accession to the European Union. Yet, in recent years, this process has slowed down, and so it can be assumed that in the coming years there will be no further enlargement of the EU to include any of the Western Balkan countries. The following article is aimed at analysing the present status of European integration with regard to the aforementioned states, and discusses the causes of regression in this process which can be identified on the side of the non-EU Western Balkan states and the European Union itself. Their integration is also a key issue in the context of the increasingly stronger presence of non-EU players such as China, Russia, and Turkey, all competing with the European Union for influence in this important region. The study was based on discourse analysis (including the critical discourse analysis approach) and content analysis.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Bojan Matkovski ◽  
Stanislav Zekić ◽  
Danilo Đokić ◽  
Žana Jurjević ◽  
Ivan Đurić

Trade agreements with the European Union (EU) and Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) significantly influenced the liberalisation of agri-food products in Western Balkan (WB) countries. In all Western Balkan countries, there has been an intensification of the trade of agri-food products and a partial change in the regional and commodity structures of trade. This paper aims to identify comparative advantages of agri-food sectors and consider its tendencies during the EU integration process. Additionally, this paper will discuss some opportunities for improvement of the export positions of agri-food products. In that context and based on the literature review, the indexes of revealed comparative advantages and its modified version will be used as a main method for analysis in this research. Results showed that all Western Balkan countries, except Albania, have comparative advantages in exporting agri-food products. It is evident that Serbia has the highest level of comparative advantages in this sector. Moreover, this paper suggests that all countries should aim to provide the best possible positions for their agri-food products during pre-accession negotiations for EU membership and take the necessary steps towards increasing the level of competitiveness in the common EU market.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document